CELL DIVISION AND THE HUMAN LIFE CYCLE (3) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CELL DIVISION AND THE HUMAN LIFE CYCLE (3) Deck (39):
1

autosomes

are the 22 pairs of chromosomes that control traits unrelated to gender

2

karotype

picture of all chromosomes in their pairs

3

kromotid

copy of chromosomes held together by centromere

4

kromatin

DNA and proteins held together in a circle

5

phrophase

phase nucleus breaks

6

telephase

phase that puts the nucleus back together

7

cell division

meosis and mitosis

8

cell cycle

interphase and cell division together

9

interphase part

cell cycle not division

10

homogenous

meiosis line up equator pairs

11

antephase 1

pulling apart amologous pairs

12

antephase 2

pullings apart sister chromosomes

13

meosis

sexual reproduction by 1/2 the genetic material

14

sister chromosomes

held together by cuntromers

15

mitosis

growth and repair- identical genetic material

16

cell cycle

somatic cell division increases the number of cells in the body

17

apoptosis

programmed cell death

18

interphase

the cell gets ready to divide

19

mitosis

start with 46 and end with 46 chromosomes
1. prophase-cell breaks up
2. metaphase- nucleus lines up in the center
3. anaphase- sister chrome separate (each side has identical copy)
4. telophase- start to pull nucleus back together

20

sister chromatids

chromosome duplicates and is composed of two identical parts

21

centromere

holds double chromosomes together

22

centrosome

duplicates and migrates to opposite ends of the cell forming the poles

23

centrioles

short cylinders found in the centrosome and assist in the formation of spindle fibers

24

prophase

chromosomes become visible
-nucleolus disappears
-nuclear envelope fragments
-centrosomes move to opposite sides of the cell
-aster and spindle fibers radiate out from centrioles
-spindle fibers attach to centromeres

25

sex chromosomes

1 pair of chromosomes

26

meiosis

two nuclear divisions in the formation of haploid gametes
-end with 1/2 number of chromosomes

27

meiosis 1

-replication of DNA
-homologous chromosomes come together and line up side by side called synapsis
-divison forms 2 daughter cells

28

meiosis 2

-centrosome divides
-sister chromatids separate
-divison forms 4 haploid gametes (1/2 the number)

29

mitosis

-body (somatic) cells
-DNA replication
-1 nuclear divison
-2 diploid cells
-genetically identical

30

meiosis

-sex cells (gametes
-DNA replication
-2 nuclear divisions
-4 haploid cells
-not genetically identical

31

spermatogenesis

formation of sperm in the male

32

oogenesis

formation of eggs in the female

33

nondisjunction

occurs when both members of a homologous pair go into the same daughter cell during meiosis 1, or when sister chromatids fails to separate in meiosis 2

34

monosomy

cell has only 1 copy of a chromosome

35

turner syndrome (XO)

only 1 X chromosome (GIRL)
-short stature, broad shouldered, with folds on the neck, underdeveloped sex organs and breasts

36

trisomy

cell has 3 copies of chromosome

37

down syndrome

3 copies of chromosome #21

38

klinefelder syndrome (XXY)

(BOY)
-underdeveloped sex organs, breast development, large hands, and long arms and legs

39

jacobs syndrome (XXY)

tall, persistant acne, speech and reading problems