MUSCULAR SYSTEM (2) Flashcards Preview

BiSci > MUSCULAR SYSTEM (2) > Flashcards

Flashcards in MUSCULAR SYSTEM (2) Deck (41):
1

smooth muscle

involuntary muscles found in the walls of hollow internal organs

2

cardiac muscle

involuntary muscles found only in the heart wall

3

skeletal muscle

voluntary muscles attached to the skeleton (antagonist- works in pairs)

4

tendon

connective tissue that connects muscle to the bone

5

origin

attachment of the muscle on a stationary bone

6

insertion

attachment of a muscle on a bone that moves

7

gluteus maxims

)makes up the buttocks and is the largest muscle) extends thigh to form buttocks

8

deltoid

(shaped like a triangle) abducts and raises arm at shoulder point

9

rectus abdominis

longitudinal muscle of the abdomen (flexes spine)

10

masseter

closes jaw

11

trapezius

extends head; raises and abducts shoulders dorsally

12

external oblique

compresses abdomen; rotates trunk

13

pectoralis major

flexes and adducts should and arm ventrally (pulls arm across chest)

14

latissimus dorsi

extends and adducts shoulder and arm dorsally (pulls arm across back)

15

triceps branchii

extends forearm

16

sartorius

rotates thigh (sitting cross-legged)

17

sarcolemma

plasma membrane

18

sarcoplasm

the cytoplasm

19

muscle fiber

a cell containing the usual cell components

20

skeletal muscle contraction

1. nerve impulses travel down motor neurons and stimulate muscle fibers at neuromuscular junctions
2. when Ca2+ are released into muscle fibers, actin filaments slide past myosin filaments
3. synaptic vesicles release Ach which binds to protein receptors causing Ca to leave the sarcoplasmic reticulum and myofibril contraction follows.

21

muscle twitch

a single contraction that lasts only a fraction of a second

22

summation

increased muscle contraction until maximal sustained contraction is reached

23

tentanus

maximal sustained contraction

24

tone

a continuous slight tension maintained by muscle fibers that take turns contracting

25

sprain

twisting of a joint involving muscles, ligaments, tendons, blood vessels, and nerves

26

strain

an injury that causes over stretching of a muscle near a joint

27

tendinitis

inflamed tendon like tennis elbow

28

bursitis

inflamed bursa (cortisone injections)

29

muscular dystrophy

progressive degeneration and weakening of muscles

30

myasthenia gravis

autoimmune disease characterized by weakness that affects the muscles of the eyelids, face, neck, and extremities

31

myalgia

achy muscles due to injury or infection

32

movement is essential to maintaining

homeostasis

33

antagonistic

muscles that work in opposite pairs

34

synergistic

muscles working in groups for a common action

35

proteins

actin and myosin are

36

bursae

Saclike, fluid- filled structures, lined with synovial membrane, that occurs near a joint.

37

actin

One of two major proteins of muscle; makes up thin filaments in myofibrils of muscle fibers.

38

myosin

One of two major proteins of muscle; makes up thick filaments in myofibrils of muscle fibers.

39

tropomyosin

Protein that functions with troponin to block muscle contraction until calcium ions are present.

40

ATP (adenosine triphosphate)

Nucleotide with three phosphate groups. The breakdown of ATP into ADP + P makes energy avail-able for energy- requiring processes in cells.

41

ligaments

Tough cord or band of dense fibrous connective tissue that joins bone to bone at a joint.