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Flashcards in BiSci Exam #1 Deck (186):
1

Biology

is the science of life or the study of living organisms.

2

Cells
Tissues
Organs
Organ System
Organisms

Humans are highly organized (5)

3

Organ systems maintain homeostasis

maintaining a stable internal environment even when the external environment changes.

4

Homeostasis

living; where that organ, cell, etc likes to be regulated

5

evolution

change

6

Biosphere

zone of air, land, and water at the surface of the Earth in which living organisms are found.

7

Science

the study of the material universe or physical reality in order to understand it.

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Scientific Theory

concept supported by a broad range of observations, experiments, and data.

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Cell Theory

all organisms are compounded of cells.

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Gene Theory

organisms contain coded info that determines their form, function, and behavior.

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Evolution Theory

all living things have a common ancestor but each is adapted to a particular way of life.

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Observation
Hypothesis
Experiment/Observations
Conclusion
Scientific Theory

Scientific Method (5)

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DNA

what is in the nucleus

14

DV

the results from the initiation

15

Control Group

used for comparison and is not exposed to the experimental variable.

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Test Group

is exposed to the experimental variable

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Experimental Variable

is what is to be tested (purposely changed or manipulated)
-during the experiment, all the conditions must be kept constant expect for the experimental variable

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Cell

all organisms are composed of cells and new cells only come from pre-existing cells.

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Homeostasis

the internal environment of an organism stays relatively constant.

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Ecosystem

populations of organisms interact with each other and the physical environment

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Evolution

all living things that have a common ancestor, but each is adapted to a particular way of life.

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Matter

anything that occupies space and has mass.
-composed of elements

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Atoms

smallest unit of an element that still retains the chemical and physical properties of the element.

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Proton

positive charge, 1 atomic unit, in nucleus

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Neutron

neutral charge, 1 atomic unit, in nucleus

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Electron

negative charge, 0 atomic units, electron cloud
-orbit around the nucleus

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Element

the basic building block of matter that cannot be broken down by chemical means.

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Molecules

bonding of atoms to form a chemical unit
(can be same or different atoms)

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Protons

Atomic number=

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ion

uncharged particle

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Proton+Neutron

Atomic weight=

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isotopes

same type of atom with varying numbers of neutrons(weighs different)

33

Radioactive isotopes

can be useful in dating old objects, imaging body organs and tissue thru x-rays, and killing cancer cells.

34

Compound

different atoms bond together

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ionic bonding

the attraction between oppositely charged atoms
(NaCl=table salt)

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Covalent Bonding

occurs when atoms share a pair of electrons

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Water

most abundant molecule in living organisms

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Hydrogen Bonding

weak bond can be broken easily

39

-liquid at room temp
-temp rises and falls slowly
-has high heat of vaporization
-frozen is less dense that liquid
-cohesive
-solvent for polar molecules

Properties of water (6)

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Acid

substance that dissociate in H2O, releasing H+

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Base

substance that either take up H+ or release OH-

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Acidic Solutions

high H+ concentration, low pH

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Basic Solutions

high OH- concentration, high pH

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pH Scale

used to indicate the acidity and basicity of a solution (measure of H+)
-ranges from 0-14

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10x

each unit has___x the basicity/acidity of the previous unit

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Dehydration Reaction

the removal of water that allows subunits to link together into larger molecules

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Hydrolysis Reaction

the addition of water that breaks larger molecules into their subunits

48

Dehydration Synthesis

makes bigger molecule, take H2O out, anabolic reaction

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Hydro Synthesis Degration

breaks molecule down, add H2O, catabolic reaction

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Macromolecule

a molecule that contains many subunits

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Carbohydrates

-sugar
-made of subunits called monosaccharides
-function as long and short term energy storage
-simple and complex

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monosaccharide

simple sugar made up of carbon atoms
(glucose, fructose, galactose)

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disaccharide

made by joining only two monosaccharides together by dehydration reaction

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polysaccharide

made up of many glucose units
-starch
-glycogen
-cellulose

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Lipid

-fats
-molecules that don't dissolve in water
-used as energy molecules
-found in cell membranes
-fats, oils, phospholipids, steroids

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triglyceride

made up of one glycerol molecule plus three fatty acid molecules and used for long term energy storage

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saturated

solid, room temp, single bond (fats)

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unsaturated

liquid, room temp, double bond (oils)

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bile

breaks down water and fat (produced in the liver)

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trans fats

these type of fats are linked to cancer cells

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Phospholipids

primary component of cellular membranes and are soluble in H2O, b/c they have a hydrophilic group.

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Steroid

type of lipid molecule having a complex of four carbon rings (cholesterol, estrogen, progesterone, testosterone)

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Proteins

-meat
-made up of amino acid subunits
-important for diverse functions in the body (hormones, enzymes, antibodies, and transport)
-can denature (undergo a change in shape to causes loss of function)

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Proteins

macromolecules with amino acid subunits

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Amino Acids

end product of protein digestion

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Enzymes

control nearly all the chemical reactions that occur in the body and when exposed to extremes in heat and pH, they undergo a change in shape (denaturation)

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all enzymes

are proteins, but not all proteins are enzymes

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1.Primary Structure
-linear sequence of amino acids joined by peptide bonds (polypeptide chain)
2.Secondary Structure
-occurs when polypeptide takes on certain orientation in space
3.Tertiary Structure
-final 3 dimensional shape
4. Quaternary Structure
-polypeptide with its own primary,secondary, and tertiary structures (hemoglobin and most enzymes)

Levels of Protein Organization (4)

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Nucleic Acids

-made of nucleotide subunits
-function in the cell to make proteins
-include RNA and DNA

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DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

stores genetic info in the cell and codes for the order in which amino acids are to be joined.
-polymers of nucleotides
-nucleotide (phosphate, sugar(deoxyribose), base
-double stranded helix
-bases (A,T,C,G)
-A=T
-C=G

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RNA (ribonucleic acid)

-single stranded
-polymers of nucleotides
-bases (A,U,C,G)
-A=U
-C=G

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ATP (adenosine triphosphate)

nucleotide that is a high energy carrying molecule in all cells, may be cashed in for energy when needed.

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Cell

unit structure and function for all living organisms

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Cell Theory

-a cell is the basic unit of life
-all living things are made up of cells
-new cells arise only from preexisting cells

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Cell Size

cells need a large surface area relative to the volume of cytoplasm so most are relatively small and are microscopic

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Prokaryotic Cells

-thought to be the first cells to evolve
-lack a nucleus
-rep. by bacteria and archaea

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Eukaryotic Cells

-have a nucleus that houses DNA
-many membrane bound organelles
-a cell has a plasma membrane, a cytoskeleton, a nucleus, and cytoplasm and organelles

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1. plasma membrane
-surrounds and delineates the cell
2. cytoplasm
-the semi fluid substance inside the cell that contains organelles
3. DNA

what do prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have in common? (3)

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Selectivity Permeable

The membrane allows some things in while keeping other substances out

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plasma membrane

a phospholipid bilayer that is selectivity permeable.

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Passage Transport

a cell exerts no energy in gaining materials from its environment.

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Diffusion

random movement of molecules from the area of higher concentration to the area of lower concentration (want to equal things out)

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Osmosis

diffusion of H2O across a plasma membrane (move it in to delude)

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Hypotonic Solutions

cause cells to swell and burst due to intake of H2O(gain of H2O)

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Hypertonic Solutions

cause a cell to shrink due to loss of H2O (loss of H2O)

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isotonic solution

equal amounts of solute and solvent (there is no net gain or loss of H2O)

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Facilitated Transport

some molecules are transported by means of protein carriers within the membrane

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Active Transport

requires a protein carrier and the use of cellular energy (ATP)

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Cytoskeleton

protein fibers that criss-cross the cytoplasm and help maintain shape of the cell and also allows movement of the organelles

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Chromatin

determines sex of the individual and hereditary characteristics

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Nucleoli

one or more spheres that produce ribosomal RNA

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Nuclear Envelope

double membrane that separates that nuclear materials from the cytoplasm and is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum

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Nuclear Pores

entrance of proteins and exit of nRNA and mRNA

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Nucleoplasm

semifluid supporting the chromatin and nucleoli

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protein

ribosomes=

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DNA strand

nucleotide=

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Ribosomes

-small organelles where protein synthesis occurs
-protein plant

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The Endomembrane System

consists of the nuclear envelop, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and vesicles

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sER

produces phospholipids, testosterone in the testes, and helps detoxify drugs in the liver

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rER

where proteins are synthesized and where processing and modification begin

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Golgi Apparatus

where proteins and lipids are processed, packaged, and secreted

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Lysosomes (hydrolytic enzymes)

membranous sacs for intracellular digestion

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Cilia and Flagella

projections of cells for movement and cilary sets up moving currents

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Mitochondria

involved in cellular respiration a process that converts glucose into ATP molecules

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Cellular Metabolism

all the chemical reactions that occur in a cell

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Proteins

-channels
-hormones
-markers
-enzymes

107

Cell Respiration

metabolic reactions that use the energy from carb, fatty acid, or amino acid breakdown to produce ATP molecules

108

Fermentation

an anaerobic process that produces very little ATP per glucose molecule and results in a build up of lactic acid

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Aerobic

have O2

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Anaerobic

no O2 available

111

Basic Solution

H+ down
OH- up

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Acidic Solution

H+ up
OH- down

113

compound

C6H12O6

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Connective Tissue

binds and supports the body

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muscle tissue

moves the body and its part

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nervous tissue

receives stimuli and conducts nerve impulses

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epithelial tissue

covers body surfaces and lines the cavities of the body

118

Sarcomas

cancers of the bone and cartilage (connective)

119

Leukemia

cancers of the blood

120

Lymphomas

cancers of the lymphoid tissue

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Carcinomas

cancers of the epithelial tissue (skin cancer)

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-fibrous
-supportive
-fluid

3 types of connective tissue

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-cyte

matured cell

124

Hyaline Cartilage

has a white translucent appearance and found in the nose and ends of long bones

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Elastic Cartilage

more flexible and found in the outer ear

126

Fibrocartilage

found between the vertebrae in the backbone

127

Lacunae

cells in chambers

128

bone

rigid connective tissues

129

compact bones

hard mineralized matrix that gives strength to bone

130

spongy bones

large spaces filled with red marrow

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Blood

consists of formed elements and plasma

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RBC

transports oxygen to body cells

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WBC

fights infection, some are phagocytic and others combine and foreign substances to inactive them

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Platelets

cell fragments necessary for clotting of the blood

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Lymph

matrix is a fluid

136

tissue fluid (lymph)

plays a role in fluid, ion, and pH balance within the body

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Skeletal Muscle

voluntary muscles attached to the bones

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Smooth Muscle

involuntary muscles making up the walls of the internal organs

139

cardiac muscle

involuntary muscles found only in the heart

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Nervous Tissue

it allows communication between cells thru sensory input, integration of data, and motor output
-made of neurons and neuroglia

141

Neuron

nerve cell made up of dendrites, a cell body, and an axon

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Neuroglia

cells that support and nourish neurons

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Microglia

engulf bacterial and cellular debris

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Astrocytes

provide nutrients to neurons

145

Oligodendrocytes

form myelin, which speed impulse transmission

146

Epithelial Tissue

it lines

147

simple epithelia

a single layer of cells classified according to cell types

148

squamous epithelium

flattened cells forming the lining of blood vessels and alveoli (flat, the more, the thicker)

149

cuboidal epithelium

cubed shaped cells lining the kidney tubules and glands

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columnar epithelium

rectangular cells in columns lining the digestive tract (tall and skinny, want it to absorb)

151

stratified epithelia

layers of cells piled one on top of the other (lining the nose, mouth, and esophagus)

152

glandular epithelia

secretes products like mucus, digestive enzymes, and hormones (will seprete)

153

Integumentary System

made up of the skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands

154

Epidermis

stratified squamous epithelium composed of keratinocytes and melanocytes (top skin layer)

155

Dermis

dense fibrous connective tissue containing sensory receptors, blood vessels, and glands

156

Subcutaneous layer

loose connective tissue and adipose tissue, which stores fat (bottom skin layer, fat tissue)

157

Basal Cell Carcinoma

is the most common yet least deadly form of skin cancer

158

Melanoma

is the most deadly form of skin cancer but is the least common.

159

Nails

sheets of hard keratinized cells forming a protective covering for the fingers and toes

160

hair filicides

found in the dermis and where sebum is released to lubricate the hair

161

oil glands

secrete sebum, an oily substance that lubricates the skin and hair

162

sweat glands

play a role in modifying body temp and have ducts that lead to a pore at the surface of the skin

163

Organ

two or more tissue types working towards a particular function

164

Organ System

is a combination of organs that work together to carry out a particular function

165

integumentary system

largest single organ of the body that has a protective function, synthesizes vitamin D, collects sensory data, and helps regulate body temp

166

cardiovascular system

transports nutrients and O2 to cells and transports wastes away from cells; also defends against disease

167

lymphatic system

immunity, defends against disease, absorbs fats, and drainage of tissue fluid

168

digestive system

ingestion and digestion of food. absorbs nutrients and eliminates waste materials. nonmetallic.

169

respiratory system

gaseous exchange at lungs and tissues and helps control pH balance

170

urinary system

eliminates metabolic wastes and helps control fluid and pH balance

171

skeletal system

internal support and protection and production of blood cells

172

muscular system

moves body and internal organs and produces body heat

173

nervous system

receives sensory input, integrates, and initiates motor output

174

endoctrine system

produces hormones for regulation of body tissue

175

reproductive system

production of gametes and sex hormones and nurtures offspring

176

Ventral

largest cavity located on the front side of the body

177

thoracic cavity

encloses and protects the heart and lungs

178

diaphragm

breathing muscle

179

abdominal cavity

below the diaphragm and encloses the stomach, liver, spleen, intestines, reproductive organs, and urinary organs.

180

dorsal

smallest cavity located on the backside of the body

181

cranial cavity

protects the brain

182

vertebral cavity

protects the spinal cord

183

negative feedback

primary homeostatic mechanism that keeps everything at normal levels

184

sensory component

detects change in the internal environment

185

control center

brings about an effect to return conditions back to normal again

186

positive feedback

a mechanism that brings about an ever greater change in the same direction