ENDOCRINE SYSTEM (5) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ENDOCRINE SYSTEM (5) Deck (34):
1

exocrine glands

secrete hormone into ducts (direct to target)
and digest enzymes into small intestine

2

endocrine glands

secrete hormones into blood stream and controls blood sugar

3

endocrine glands

ductless glands that produce regulating hormones, which along with the nervous system, control other organ systems of the body
-response is slow and long lasting
-controlled by negative feedback

4

chemical signal hormone (endocrine)

a means of communication between cells, between body parts, and between individuals

5

pheromones hormone (endocrine)

affect metabolism and influence the behavior of other individuals

6

peptide hormones (endocrine)*

bind to a receptor in the plasma membrane causing the formation of cAMP which *activates* an enzyme cascade (dominos)

7

steroid hormones (endocrine)*

affect gene activity and protein synthesis (have to be on a nucleus)

8

hypothalamus

regulates the internal environment thru the autonomic nervous system
-controls grandular secretions of the pituitary gland
-helps control the heartbeat
-helps control body temp
-helps control water balance

9

posterior pituitary (backside)

-Antidiuretic hormone (ADH): regulates water reabsorption (H2O is returned to the bloodstream)
-oxytocin: stimulates uterine contraction during childbirth and milk release
-controlled by positive feedback

10

anterior pituitary (frontside)

-gonadotropic hormones: stimulate the gonads to produce gametes and hormones
-prolactin (PRL): causes mammary glands to develop and produce milk
-melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH): causes skin cells to produce melanin
-growth hormone (GH): promotes skeletal and muscular growth

11

pituitary dwarfism

perfect proportions but small stature (too little GH during childhood)

12

giantism

too much GH during childhood and usually characterized by poor health

13

acromegaly

the feet, hands, and face become overly large (too much GH during adulthood)

14

thyroid gland

large gland located below the larynx

15

thyroxine

regulates metabolism

16

calcitonin

lowers blood calcium levels

17

simple goiter

enlarged gland due to lack of iodine in the diet

18

cretinism

too little thyroxine during childhood (short, stalky mentally retarded individuals)

19

myxedema

too little thyroxine during adulthood (lethargy, loss of hair, and thickness and puffiness of the skin)

20

graves disease

hyperthyroidism (goiter, eyes protrude, nervous, and suffers from insomnia)

21

parathyroid glands

embedded in the lobes of the thyroid gland and hormone raises blood calcium levels in blood

22

adrenal glands

sit on top of the kidneys

23

adrenal medulla: epinephrine

prepares the body for quick reaction action. fight or flight mode. short term response to stress

24

addison disease

hypo-secretion of glucocorticoids by the adrenal cortex, characterized by bronzing of the skin

25

cushing syndrome

hyersecretion of the adrenal cortex (trunk is obese while arms and legs remain normal size)

26

pancreas*

lies transversely between the kidneys and near duodenum

27

insulin

lowers blood glucose levels in the blood (target areas-liver, muscle, and adipose tissue cells)

28

glucagon

raises blood glucose levels of the blood (target tissues- liver and adipose)

29

type 1 diabetes*

pancreas is not producing insulin
-high blood sugar
-hyperglycemia

30

type 2 diabetes*

inability of cells to respond to insulin (cells do not have enough insulin receptors)
-most common type
-hypoglycemia
-low blood sugar

31

gonads

reproductive organs

32

thymus gland

lies behind the sternum
-secretes thymosin which stimulates T cell lymphocyte development
-large and most active in children

33

pineal gland

-located in the brain
-secretes melatonin which is involved in our daily sleep cycle and also regulates sexual development

34

homeostasis

the nervous and endocrine systems exert control over the other systems