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Flashcards in Blood Deck (92):
1

Blood is a specialized form of

CT that comprises ~10% body weight

2

Some major functions of blood

-Gas exchange (O2 carried by hemoglobin; CO2 carried by hemoglobin and plasma)
-Transport nutrients from GI tract to all cells
-Transport cellular waste products to organs for elimination
-Transport hormones, metabolites, electrolytes
-Cellular defense (immunity)
-Regulation of body temp
-Homeostasis of body fluid pH and osmotic pressure

3

What's the composition of blood

Plasma (55%) and formed elements(45%)

4

Composition of plasma (in blood)

-Water (91%)
-Solutes (nutrients, wastes, blood gases, electrolytes, regulatory molecules)
-Proteins (albumin, fibrinogens, globulins, clotting factors)

5

Composition of formed elements (in blood)

AKA hematocrit
-Erythrocytes- 5x10^6/mm3
-Leukocytes-5-10x10^3/mm3
-Thrombocytes/platelets-150-200x10^3/mm3

6

From which embryonic germ layer is blood derived?

mesoderm

7

List plasma proteins

Albumin: 65% osmolarity and viscosity
Globulins: transport and storage proteins
-->Transferrins transports iron in blood
-->Ferritin stores iron in liver and marrow
Fibrinogens: clotting proteins

8

Liver is a source of what plasma proteins

Albumin
Globulins (AB)***
Clotting proteins (fibrinogen)***
Complement proteins
Plasma lipoproteins

9

Fxn of albumin

Maintains colloid osmotic pressure and transports certain insoluble metabolites

10

Fxn of globulins

AB
Transport metal ions, protein-bound lipids, and lipid-soluble vitamins

11

Fxn of clotting proteins

Formation of fibrin threads

12

Fxn of C' proteins

Destruction of microorganisms and initiation of inflammatino

13

Fxn of lipoproteins

Transport triglycerides to liver or from liver to body cells
Transport cholestrol from liver to body cells

14

Lymphocyes are a source for what plasma proteins

Globulins (AB)

15

Plasma vs Serum
-Which is acellular

Both

16

Plasma vs serum
-Which is from clotted blood

Serum (can collect w/o anticoagulant)
(Need anticoagulant for plasma)

17

Plasma vs serum
-Which has fibrinogen

Plasma

18

Plasma vs serum
-Collection tubes

Plasma- purple/green
Serum-red/blank

19

Anticoagulant for plasma

EDTA
Heparin

20

Formed element for gaseous exchange; maintain pH

erythrocytes

21

Formed element for cells of defense/immunity

leukocytes

22

Formed element thats fragment of megakaryocytes and facilitate blood clotting

platelets/thrombocytes

23

T/F formed elements vary percentages vary across species

T

24

Reticulocytes are what percent of RBC count

LESS THAN 1 PERCENT

25

Structure of erythrocytes
-nucleated
-organelles
-shape
-length
-cell volume

-Non nucleated in mammalian adults (nucleated in fetus)
-Lack organelles (no protein synthesis/replacement of enzymes)
-Disk shape/biconcave and highly deformable
-5-7microm long, 2micom at widest part
-Hemoglobin 1/3 of cell volume (made during hemopoiesis)

26

Hemoglobin forms

When bound to O2=OXYHEMOGLOBIN

When bound to CO2=CARBAMINOHEMOGLOBIN

When bound to CO (high affinity)= CARBOXYHEMOGLOBIN (bad)

27

Fxn of gas exchange in RBC (4)
-Shape
-Hemoglobin binding
-Enzyme
-Deformability

1-Shape produces high SA:volume ratio for gas exchange (reason for non-nuc more room)
2-Hemoglobin binds to O2 and CO2
3-Carbonic anhydrase converts CO2-->HCO3 which is transported across RBC membrane by band 3 protein for exhalation by lung
4-Deformability allows passage through capillaries (lumen is smaller than RBC diamter)

28

Where are RBC when they conduct their fxn

Blood vessels

29

Life span of RBC

3 mo

30

RBC cell membrane
-Helps maintain shape of cell

-Transmembrane proteins and cytoskeleton. Also stabilize cell against shearing forces of blood flow and allows deformability

31

Examples of cell mem proteins (3)

Na+/K+ ATPase (ion channel)
Band 3 protein (anchors and transports things)
Cytoskeletal proteins

32

Blood type dependent on

CH20 chains on CM that act as Ag

33

Blood type of dogs
-most popular

DEA 1.1+ or 1.1-

40% are +

34

Blood type of cats

A (95%)
B(LESS 5 PERCENT)
AB (RARE)

35

Specie with the most RBC

Goat (14 million)

36

Avg #RBC in species

5 million

37

Specie with smallest RBC

Goat (4.1 microm)

38

Specie with longest RBC lifespan
-Shortest

Cow (160 days)
Cats (66-79 days)

39

Anisocytosis

Variation in size of RBC

40

Crenation

Shrinkage of cells in a hypertonic soln causing irregular margins and a # of prickly points yielding a stellate shape (echinocyte)

41

Erythrocytopenia

Decrease # of RBC in blood

42

Erythrocytosis

Increase RBC above normal and associated with increase in total blood volume

43

Hemolysis

Destruction of RBC w/release of hemoglobin into medium in which RBC are suspended

44

Howell-Jolly bodies

Small, round, densely staining bodies in RBC that are considered nuclear remnants

45

Macrocyte

RBC having diameter exceeding normal range

46

Microcyte

RBC having diameter below normal range

47

Poikilocytosis

RBC with abnormal shapes

48

Reticulocyte

Any non-nucleated cell of RBC series in which one or more granules or fibrils are discernible

49

Target cell

RBC with a central rounded area of pigmented material surrounded by a clear zone w/o pigment and a dense ring of cytoplasm

50

Leukocytes perform their fxn where

outside of blood vessel

In CT/paranchyma

51

Structure off leukocytes

Single nucles and primary granules (lysosomes)

52

Types of granules

Primary (non-specific/azurophilic/lysosomes)
Secondary (specific)
Teritary

53

Granulocytes
-Contain
-Examples

Have specific granules (secondary)
Have primary granules (lysosomes)
Have segmented/lobed nucleus

PMN, Eosinophil, basophil

54

Agranulocytes
-Contain
-Examples

Have primary granules (primary/lysosomes)

Lymphocyte, monocyte

55

Trend with lymphocyte
-->exception

2:1 (PMN: Lymphocyte)

Exception: cows and sheep
1:2 (PMN:Lymphocyte)

56

% in blood
-monocytes
-eosinophils
-basophils

-8%
-1-7%
-LESS THAN ONE PERCENT

57

PMN
-Granules
-Nucleus
-% in peripheral blood (variable) of WBC
-Time circulating blood
-Unique features

-Specific granules that don't stain well
-Segmented nucleus (more lobed=older cell)
-30-60%
-Few hrs
-Few have drumstick chromosome. Females inactive X chromosome (Barr body)

58

Fxn of PMN

Phagocytose/destroy bacteria (called microphage)
Goes to kill bacteria via chemotactic factors
Can release ROS

59

PMN primary granules

Stir up an inflamm response
-lysosomes
-acid hydrolases
-collagenase, elastase, myeloperoxidase, cathepsin G
-defensins

60

PMN secondary granules

Released into ECM
-bacteriocidal: lactoferrin, lysozyme, phagocytin
-Type IV collagenase (assists invasion into tissues)
-Alkaline phosphatase

61

Once PMN die after killing bacteria

Form pus

62

Eosinophil
-granules
-nucleus
-% in peripheral blood of WBC
-Time in blood circulation

-Specific granules vary in size depending on specie and stain pink (eosinophilic)
-Segmented nucleus
-3-8%
-Few hrs

63

Fxn of eosinophil

Phagocytose and destroy parasites and Ag-AB complexes
Attracted to sites by histamine, leukotrienes, and chemotactic factors
Release substances to inactivate inflamm factors (histamine/leukotrienes) that were secreted by mast cells and basophils.

64

Eosinophil primary granules AKA

Non-specific
-Lysosomes (contain hydrolases): destroy Ag/AB complexes and parasites

65

Eosinophil secondary granules AKA
-Released
-Examples (4)

-What surrounds internum

Specific
-Released in ECM
-Crystalloid "internum": contains major basic protein and eosinophilic cationic protein for destruction of parasites
-Histaminase (inactivates histamine)
-Arylsulfatase (inactivates leukotriene C)
-Hydrolases (cathepsins, peroxidase, ribonuclease, phospholipase)

Externum

66

Basophil secondary granules
-Stains/size
-nucleus
-% in peripheral blood of leukocytes
-Time in blood circulation
-Cell surface receptors

-Stain dark blue/black equal intensity of nucleus
Granules vary in size among species
-Segmented nucleus and may be obstructed by granules
-

67

Fxn of basophils

Initiation of allergic/inflamm rxn
Cell surface receptor IgE when bound to Ag stimulates degranulation and release of granules

68

Basophils have similar fxn to what cell

Mast cell

69

Basophil non-specific granules

Lysosomes- contain hydrolases

70

Basophil secondary granules
-release where
-examples

-ECM

-Histamine (increases vascular permeability, vasodilation, constriction of bronchioles, reduces blood volume, and can cause anaphylactic shock)
-Heparin, TNFalpha, IL-4,5,6, leukotrienes, peroxidase
-Chemotactic factors to attract eosinophils and PMN

71

Monocyte AKA
-Cell size
-Nucleus
-% in peripheral blood of WBC
-Unique IDs
-Stays in peripheral blood
-Where to perform fxn

Agranulocye

-Largest cell in peripheral blood (15-20 micrm)
-Large indented kidney bean shaped, ascentric, chromatin "soap bubble"
-3-9%
-Vacuoles (blue grey in cytoplasm), lysosomes
-Few days
-Enters CT and differentiates into MQ (which phagocytose)

72

Fxn of monocyte/MQ

-Phagocytosis (bacteria, fungi, viruses)
-Cytokine production (mediates inflamm and tells other cells what to do)
-Ag presentation (present via MHC-II)
-Formation of Giatn MQ to phagocytose GIANT foreign material

73

Effector cells of immunology

Monocytes

Lymphocytes

74

Lymphcotes AKA
-Nucleus
-Cytoplasm
-% in peripheral blood of WBC

Agranulocyte
-Round, slightly indented nucleus that occupies most of cell
-Scant cytoplasm stains light blue
-30-60%

75

Subtypes of lymphocytes

-B lymphocytes (20%)- differentiate to plasma cells for AB production (humoral immunity)
-T lymphocytes (75%)-cell mediated immunity
-Null cells (5%) hemopoietic stem cells (HSC) and natural killer cells (NK)

76

Fxn of lymphocytes

-B and T cell proliferation when Ag stimulated
-->Memory cells: respond to subsequent attack of particular substance
-->Effector cells: immediate immune response
-B cells- transform to plasma cells to make AB
-T cells-transform to cytotoxic T cells and T helper cells for cell mediated immunity

77

Band

Immature granulocytic WBC that contains specific granules and an elongated nucleus that's uniform in thickness w/parallel sides. Nucleus "C" or "S" shaped

78

Granulocyte

Cells that contain specific granules

79

Granulocytosis

Presence of increased numbers of granulocytes in blood

80

Hemocytometer

Instrument for counting # of granulocytes in blood

81

Leukemia

Neoplastic disease arising in hemopoietic tissue in which the type ells appear in blood or disseminated diffusely through the marrow

82

Leukocytosis

An increase in # of circulating WBC above normal range

83

Leukopenia

A decrease in # of circulating WBC below normal range

84

Stab cell

Synonymous with band cell used in Schilling's classification of PMN

85

Platelets
-nucleus
-derived from
-birds
-fxn

-non-nucleated
-megakaryocyte (bone marrow)
-thrombocytes fulfills fxn of platelet in bird
-Initiates blood clotting to limit and prevent hemorrhage

86

Platelets
-Hyalomere
-Granulomere

-Outer (peripheral) band of homogenous cytoplasm. Contains MT and actin and myosin monomers

-Central dark region that contains granules

87

Fxn of platelets

When vascular endothelial lining is disrupted (bleeding) platelets initiate clotting by becoming ACTIVATED
-->adhere to subendothelial collagen
-->release granule contents
-->adhere to one another

88

What do endothelial cells produce to prevent platelet aggregation

Prostacyclins and NO2

89

T/F during injury, production of platelet aggregation inhibitors cease

T

90

How to make a blood smear

-Make single, thin layer of blood determined by acute angle
-Stains:Wright stain (methylene blue and eosin)

91

Typical formation of horse blood

Rouleaux formation "poker chip"

92

Are Howell-Jolly bodies normal?

No

Pretty normal in cats (up to 1%)