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Flashcards in Respiratory Lecture Deck (60):
1

Types of epithelia in respiratory system (6)

Stratified squamous
PSCC with goblet cells
PSCC sensory olfactory region
PSCC of respiratory tree
Simple cuboidal of alveolus
Simple squamous of alveolus

2

What are the 3 regions the nasal cavity consists of

Sensory
-Olfactory
-Vomeronasal organ

Non-sensory
-Respiratory

3

What's the primary function of the respiratory epithelium

Warm, clean, and humidify inspired incoming air

4

Olfactory system CNS or ANS

CNS sense of smell

5

What kind of neurons are in olfactory system

True neuron (exposed to outside world and vulnerable)

Bipolar neuron (true neuron, has axon and dendrite)

6

What types of receptors are in olfactory system

Odorant receptors on cilia

7

T/F Olfactory system is capable of neuron replacement

T
This is normal and happens when injured

Happens via basal cell mitosis (post natal neurogenesis) and development of new acon and dendrite.

8

When doing neurological testing for CN I use...

Food

NOT smelling salts

9

Where does olfactory neuron axon project
->Probelm?

Directly to CNS olfactory bulb
->Potential portal of infection to CNS

10

What are the 2 sensory systems present in canine?

Main olfactory system-in nasal cavoty
Vomeronasal system-opens into oral cavity

11

Where does the VNO system and main olfactory system connect

Connect with axon projections to olfactory bulb

12

What is the VNO system important for?

Mating and repro fxns
-->VNO Flehmen response

13

Sensory epithelium consists of (5)

Basal cells

Supporting cells

Bipolar olfactory sensory neurons

Olfactory axons in lamina propria

Bowman's glands

14

Hyposmia and anosmia are a result from

Foreign bodies that damage nasal cavity mucosa.... can cause secondary infection

15

What are defensins?
-What fxns do they have
-Example

Small peptides produced by WBC and epithelial cells

Antimicrobial and immunomodulatory fxns

CBD 103 and pigmentation and feeding behavior

16

What is fxn of olfactory epithelium

Detect odorant materials

17

What are fxn of PSSC, Goblet cells, basal cells, supporting cells, olfactory neurons, axon bundles, Bowman glands

Protection
->Mucociliary blanket and defensins

18

What are some clinical implications of nasal cavity

Nasal mass will impact olfaction and respiration

19

What are the 3 layers of the trachea

Mucosa
Submcosa
Adventtia

20

What is the classification of trachea epithelium

PSCC with goblet cells

21

What are some physical structures of trachea

Hyaline cartilage ring

Trachealis muscle

22

Give breakdown of trachea

Bifurcates into 2 primary bronchi

Secondary bronchi (enters lung lobes)

Tertiary bronchi

Terminal bronchioles

23

T/F Trachea epithelium PSCC, gets "higher" as you work caudally down the conducting airway system

F

PSCC gets lower

24

As airway decreases in size what trends occur

Decrease in cartilage

Glands and epithelial height

Increase in smooth muscle

25

Distinguish what components of bronchial tree have cartilage and smooth muscle

Primary bronchi
-Cartilage plates
-Smooth muscle
(Primary component that maintains airway patency)

Secondary bronchi
-Cartilage plates
-Smooth muscle

Tertiary bronchi
-Cartilage plates
-Smooth muscle

Terminal bronchioles
-NO CARTILAGE
-Smooth muscle

26

What cells are in the respiratory epithelium

Ciliated cells
Goblet cells
Basal cells
Brush cells
DNES cells

27

What is the beginning of the respiratory portion of airway

Respiratory bronchioles

28

Respiratory bronchioles
-Epithelium
-Goblet ccells
-Alveoli
-Glands

Simple epithelium

Few goblet cells

Alveoli present in airway wall

No glands

29

In respiratory bronchioles, which extends farther, ciliated cells or secretory components?

Ciliated cells

30

What cells protect bronchiolar airway

Clara cells
-Columnar shape secretory cells

31

Is there gas exchange in terminal bronchiole?

Nope
-Dead air space

32

Is there gas exchange in respiratory bronchiole?

Yes

33

T/F Bronchial tree is conducting portion

T

34

What includes the conducting
portion?

Bronchial tree
-L and R primary bronchi
-Intrapulmonary bronchi
-Bronchioles
-Terminal bronchioles

35

What's the difference btw intrapulmonary bronchi and primary bronchi

Primary bronchi=cartilage C rings

Intrapulmonary bronchi= Irregular hyaline cartilage
-Smooth muscle are in two distinct layers and spiral in opposite directions.
-Elastic fibers, radiate from adventitia to connect with elastic fibers arising from other parts of the bronchial tree (similar to terminal bronchioles)

36

What are the ranges of bronchiole epithelium

Ciliate simple columnar with occasional goblet cells in larger bronchioles to simple cuboidal (many with cilia) with occasional Clara cells and no goblet cells in smaller bronchioles

37

Termnal bronchioles are lined by...
-Lamina propria consists of...

Clara cells and cuboidal cells

Fibroelastic CT and 1-2 layers of smooth muscle cells
Elastic fibers similar to intrapulmonary bronchi

38

What cells produces surfactant

Type II cells...secrete surfactant on alveolar surface to reduce surface tension and keeps alveoli from inflating.

39

The respiratory portion of the respiratory system is composed of

Respiratory bronchioles
Alveolar ducts
Alveolar sacs
Alveoli

40

If alveoli are present, what occurs?

GAS EXCHANGE

So bronchioles=gas exchange
Terminal bronchioles=no gas exchange

41

Explain alveolar duct, alveolar sac, and atrium

Alveolar ducts do not have walls of their own and end as a blind outpouching made of alveoli. THIS IS ALVEOLAR SAC.

Alevolar sac open into common space and called ATRIUM

42

What are alveoli made of

Air sacs made of type I and type II (larger) pneumocytes

43

What is the region btw adjacent alveoli and what capillary bed is associated with it

Interalveolar septum

Continuous capillaries

44

What is the thinnest region of interalveolar septum where gas exchange can occur?
-What happens here

Blood-gas barrier.
-Type I pneumocytes in intimate contact with endothelial lining of capillary and basal laminae. Helps O2 (alveolar lumen) exchange with CO2 (blood)

45

Classify lung parenchyma

Simple squamous cuboidal

46

What cells can mitotically divide?

Type II pneumocytes and can differentiate into type I cels and re-establish air-blood barrier.

47

What makes up the majority of SA of the alveolus alveolar lining

Type I cells

48

If Type I cells are injured...

Type II cells can undergo mitosis and replace Type I cells and re-establish alveolar lining.

49

What is recruited to clear dead type I cells
-What are they called

Pulmonary MQ
-Heart failure cells because RBCs and hemosiderin content are called "gitter cells"

50

What is in the gas-blood barrier?

Surfactant
Type I cells
Fused basal lamina of Type I
Basal lamina of endothelial cell
Edothelial cell
RBC

51

How can MQ move?

Pores of Kahn (intralevolar pore) in alveolar wall

52

Atelectasis
AKA

Collapsed lung

53

What are normal contents of pleural cavity

Scant amount of serous fluid (keeps frction low and surface tension high)

54

Air in pleural cavity

Pneumothorax

55

Blood in pleural cavity

Hemothorax

56

Pus in pleural cavoty

Pyrothroax

57

Where are tracheal collapse most seen?

Toy/miniature breeds

58

Cause of tracheal collapse

???

59

What's critical management of tracheal collapse?

Weight management

60

What are defense mechanisms of repiratory tract

Nasal cacity

Mucociliary tract

Glandular and epithelial secretions of defensins antibmicrobial and antiviral proteins

Alveolar MQ