Cardiovascular Lecture Flashcards Preview

Histology > Cardiovascular Lecture > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular Lecture Deck (49):
1

Parts of closed circulation of blood

Heart-muscular pump
Artery-Transport blood away from heart
Capillary-material exchange
Vein-Return blood to the heart

2

T/F Lymph system is two-way drainage system

F

One way

3

T/F Systemic circulation circulates to and from everywhere on the body

F

Everywhere but lungs and abdominal viscera

4

What is the circulation to and from the lungs?

Pulmonary circulation

5

What is the circulation from abdominal viscera?

Portal circulation

6

What's the general structure of blood vessels?

Tunica intima

Tunica media

Tunica adventitia

7

Classification and name of tunica intima

Endothelium

Simple squamous epithelium

8

What does tunica intima incorporate?

Endothelium

Basal lamina

Subendothelial layer with internal elastic lamina

9

describe the endothelial cells of tunica intima

SSE

Smooth surface lining cells

Secretes enzymes and collagens

Controlling vascular tune by secreting endothelial-dependent relaxing factor, nitric oxide (NO) and endothelial dependent constriction factor, endothelin 1 (ET-1)

10

What does tunica media incorporate?

Smooth muscle cells

Elastic fibers and lamina

CT (external elastic lamina)

11

What does tunica adventitia incorporate?

LCT

12

Complete 3 layers in arteries

Prominent muscle layer (media)

13

Types of arteries

Elastic arteries (conducting)

Muscular arteries (distributing)

Arterioles

14

Elastic artery (conducting) layers

Intimia= Thin, cincomplete internal elastic lamina

Media=More than 40 layers of elastic membranes and smooth muscle

Adventitia=Thin external elastic lamina

Visa vasorum: small blood vessels in big vessel wall goes up to tunica media

15

Muscular artery (distributing) layers

Intima= Apparent internal elastic lamina

Media=Up to 40 layers of smooth muscle cells

Adventitia=Apparent external elastic lamina

16

What do arterioles lack?

Elastic lamina

17

How many layers of smooth muscle (tunica media) in arterioles?

1-6

18

T/F Arterioles have thick layer of adventitia

F

Thin

19

Terminal arterioles vs metarterioles

Terminal arterioles have one complete layer of smooth muscle cells

Metarterioles that supply blood to capillary beds have in-complete layer of smooth muscle cells and have sphincter-like smooth muscle cells

20

What is the vascular bed between arterioles and venules?

Capillary

21

T/F Capillary has single layer of endothelial cells and basal lamina

T

22

What type of cells surround capillaries and venules and helps with contraction and differentiation

Pericyte

23

Different types of capillary

Continuous=complete layer of endothelial cells and basal lamina

Fenestrated= complete layer of endothelial cells and basal lamina; pores with diaphragm

Sinusoidal=discontinuous endothelial cells and basal lamina; big pores without diaphragm

24

Opening of arterio-venous anastomoses (AV shunt) allows

Blood flow bypassing capillary bed. RIchly innervated/

If shunt is closed, blood has to go through capillary bed

25

T/F Veins are vessels with small lumen and thick walls

F

Large lumen and thin walls

26

What are the three layers of veins

Thin tunica media

Prominent adventitia

27

What are the pairs of venous valves made of and what are there purpose?

Intimia

Prevent backflow of blood

28

T/F Veins have layer of smooth muscle

T

29

What are structures of heat wall

Endocardium

Myocardium

Epicardium

30

Name of endocardium

Endothelium

Sub-endocardial layer containing small vessels, nerve fibers, PKJ fibers.

31

Name of epicardium (and pericardium)

Mesothelium

32

What is the cardiac skeleton made of

DCT

Cartilage

33

What are some gross anatomy structures we should be familiar with (but don't need to ID)

Annuli fibrosi; aorta, pulmonary artery, AV orficies

Trigonum fibrosum; aortic valve

Inter-ventricular septum (septum membranaceum)

34

Lymph system vs vein walls

Similar but lymp walls are thinner

35

Lymph system vs vein lumen

Lumen is bigger and may see WBC

36

Aortic arch branches into (2)

Common carotid a

Internal carotid a

37

Right aortic a branches (1)

R subclavian a

38

L aortic arch branches (1)

Aortic arch (adult aorta)

39

The aortic arch continues as...

Pulmonary trunk following partitioning of truncus arteriosus

40

R aortic arch branches

R pulmonary a

41

L aortic arch branches

Ductus arteriosus (and L pulmonary a)

42

Ductus arteriosus=

Ligamentum arteriosum

43

Ductus venosus=

Ligamentum venosum

44

Left umbilical v=

Ligamentum teres (round ligament of liver)

45

Umbilical a=

Round ligament of urinary bladder

46

Foramen ovale=

Fossa ovalis

47

What is the purpose of the placenta

Provides O2, nutrition, and waste removal

48

T/F Pulmonary circulation is required before birth

F
Not until birth
-->Bypass via foramen ovale and ductus arteiosus

49

T/F Portal circulation from intestines not required until birth

T

A large portion of O2 blood bypasses liver via DUCTUS VENOSUS (connects umbilical v to caudal vena cava)

Results: Regional variations in O2 content of blood