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Flashcards in Urinary Deck (72):
1

How does renin control fluid volume?

Renin

Reabsorbs Na+ through aldosterone release from adrenal

Angiotensin II is made and allows vasoconstriction

2

What are endocrine products the kidney makes?

Renin

Erythropoietin

Vitamin D metaboltes

3

Renin purpose

Regulates blood volume/pressure

4

Erythropoietin purpose

Acts on bone marrow to make new erythrocytes

5

Vitamin D metabolites

Conversion of Vitamin D to dihydroxycholecalciferol which regulates Ca2+ transport

6

What is the basic functional unit of the kidney

Nephron

7

What makes up the renal corpuscle

Glomerulus

Bowman's capsule

8

What are the arteries for renal vasculature supply

Renal a
Interlobar a
Arcuate a
Interlobular a (radial)
Afferent glomerular arterioles

9

What are the two types of nephrons

Cortical and Juxtamedullary

10

Renal vasculature drainage route of cortical nephrons

Efferent glomerular arteriole
Peritubular capillary network
Stellate v
Interlobular v
Arcuate v
Interlobar v
Renal v

11

Juxtamedullary nephron renal vasculature drainage

Efferent glomerular arterioles
Vasa recta
Arcuate v
Interlobar v
Renal v

12

What is in the glomerulus of the renal corpuscle (4)

Tuft of capillaries (fenestrated)
Intraglomerular mesangial cells (support)
Afferent glomerular arteriole supply
Efferent glomerular arteriole drain

13

What is in Bowman's capsule of the renal corpuscle (3)

Visceral Layer: Podocytes that are S.S.E to allow filtration
Bowman's Space
Parietal layer

14

What are the 3 mechanisms for filtration?

Fenestrated S.S.E
Thick basement membrane

Podocytes

15

What is the longest, widest, and most well developed segment of the nephron?

PT

16

Where is the PT confined?

Renal cortex

17

Where are the tubular portions of PT located?

pars convoluta

18

Where are the straight portions of PT located?

pars radiata

19

PT reasborbs what percent of ions and water of the ultrafiltrate?

75

20

PT reasborbs what percent of glucose, AA, and proteins of ultrafiltrate?

100

21

What percents of organic solutes, drugs, and toxins are reabsorbed in PT?

All excreted

22

What classification of cells line the PT

S.C.E

23

T/F Cells that make PT sit on a well defned basement membrane

T

24

T/F There is a well developed brush border in PT

T

25

T/F Nuclei in PT are apical located

F
Basally

26

T/F Juxtamedullary nephrons have shorter LOH than cortical nephrons

F
Longer

27

What is the fxn of LOH (2)

Generate high osmotic pressure in EC fluid of medulla (counter-current multiplier system)

Reabsorption of water back into circulation bia vasa recta (counter-current exchange system)

28

LOH cell classification

S.S.E

29

What are differences between LOH and capillaries

Large lumen with more nuclei protruding lumen than capillaries

Epithelial cells slightly thicker than endothelial cells of vessels

Nuclei stain less densely than endothelial nuclei

Lumina contain no erythrocytes

30

Where are the tubular portions of the DT located

pars convoluta

31

Where are the straight portions of DT located

pars radiata

32

DT reabsorbs Na+ how?

Active process controlled by aldosterone release from the adrenal

33

T/F DT has absorption of ions

T

34

T/F DT is permeable to water and urea but ions can enter and leave

F

DT is impermeable to water

35

How does DT control acidity of ultrafiltrate?

Active secretion of H+ ions into lumen

36

What is the classification of DT cells

Low cuboidal cells

37

T/F DT has a lot of nuclei that are centrally/apically located

T

38

What is the ration of cross-section of PT and DT

7:1

39

Macula densa
-where
-monitors
-instructs

-Specialized portion of the DCT
-Monitors filtrate volume and Na+ concentration
-INstruct JG cells to release renin if necessary

40

Why is the collecting duct system not considered to be a part of the nephron

Due to its different embryological origin

41

What are the different parts of the collecting duct system

Collecting tubule
Collectong duct
Duct of bellini (papillary duct)

42

What does the duct of bellini do

Opens into the area cribosa to drain urine into the minor calyx/renal pelvis

43

T/F Collecting duct system is always impermeable to water

F

If ADH is present will become permeable to H2O

44

T/F Portion of collecting duct is permeable to urea

T

45

Cell classification of collecting tubule of CDS

Cuboidal epithelium

46

T/F CDS cells stain poorly

T

Termed "clear cells"

47

What types of cells are in collecting tubule of CDS?

Intercalated cells
-High number of mitochondria and microvillous surface
-Help control acid/base balance by transport of H+

48

What is the cell classification of collecting duct in CDS?

Columnar epithelium

49

What types of cells are in collecting duct of CDS?

Intercalated but are less nu,erous in collecting ducts

50

What kind of cells make up ducts of bellini (papillary ducts)

Columnar epithelium

51

What are the components of JG apparatus

Macula densa of DT

JG cells of the afferent glomerular arteriole

Extraglomerular mesangial cells ->AKA Polkissen or Lacis cells)

52

Is the mechanism behind the function of macula densa known?

No

53

Of the JG apparatus, what cells are modified smooth muscle

JG cells

54

What do JG cells secrete

Proteolytic enzyme=renin

Regulates blood volume

Alodsterone release from adreanl cortex

55

Where are EG mesangial cells?

Occupies the space bordered by the afferent artiole, MD, efferent arteriole, and vascular pole of renal corpuscle

56

What is the EG mesangial cell contiguous with?

Intraglomerular mesangial cells

57

Is the prcise function of EG mesangial cells known?

no

58

What are parts of urinary system made of transitional epithelium?

Ureters
Urinary bladder
Urethra- near bladder

59

What is the part of the urethra farther from bladder made of

Stratified squamous non-keratinixing

60

What are the organizational layers of lower urinary tract

Mucosa
Lamina propria/submucosa
Tunica muscularis
Tunica adventitia/serosa

61

The kidney develops from (2)

Ureteric bud

Metanephric mesenchyme

62

How does the uteric bud form in the development of the mature kidney?

From outgrowth of the mesonephric duct near the cloaca

63

What are all formed from the ureteric bud, endoderm germ layer origin

Ureter
Renal pelvis
Major and minor calyces
Collecting ducts
Collecting tubule

64

What is the rest of the nephron formed from (other than ureter, renal pelvis, etc)

Metanephric mesenchyme
Mesoderm germ layer origin

65

What are the layers of the ureter?

Tunica mucosa

Tunica muscularis

Tunica adventitia

66

In ureter: Tunica mucosa is lined by

Transitional epithelium
Lamina propria
-->Fibroelastic LCT
-->In horse, mucus glands=cloudy urine

67

In ureter: Tunica muscularis layers

Inner longitudinal smooth muscle layer
Outer circular smooth muscle layer
Outer longitudinal smooth muscle layer

68

In ureter: tunica adventitia layer

Outer CT layer
(mesothelum=S.S.E)

69

Urinary bladder layers

Tunica Mucosa

Tunica muscularis

Tunica serosa

70

In bladder: Tunica mucosa is lined by

Transitional epithelium cells (impermeable to water/urine)

Lamina propria/submucosa
-->Fibroelastic LCT and DICT
-Separted by muscularis mucosa in fragmented setions

71

In bladder: Tunica muscularis is made of

Smooth muscle

72

In bladder: tunica serosa is made of

Outer CT layer of mesothelium