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Flashcards in Cartilage Deck (51):
1

3 functions of cartilage

Support

Cushion

Template for mature bone

2

Mature cartilage is (3)

Avascular

Aneural

Alymphatic

3

How does cartilage receive nourishment if its avascular?

Blood vessels of surrounding CT (pericondrium= hyaline and elastic cartilage)

Synovial fluid within joint capsule (without pericondrium=fibrocartilage)

4

What is the relationship between cartilage thickness and nutrients/oxygen?

Nutrients and oxygen must diffuse through the water of hydration within ECM which limits thickness of cartilage.

5

Acellular components of cartilage

ECM
-->Water
-->Ground substance
-->Fibers

6

Components of ground substance and fibers in ECM

Ground substance
-aggrecans
-hyaluronic acid
-GAG
-Proteoglycans

Fibers
-Collagen
-Elastic

7

Cellular components of cartilage (3)

Chondrogenic cells

Chondroblasts

Chondrocytes

8

Immature cells that secrete ECM in cartilage

chondroblasts

9

Mature cells that are enveloped by the ECM into lacunae

Chondrocytes

10

Types of growth in cartilage (2)

Appositional growth

Interstitial growth

11

Perichondrium consists of 2 layers

-Outer fibrous layer
-Inner cellular layer

12

Outer fibrous layer of perichondrium made of

Type I collagen

Fibroblasts

Blood vessels

13

Inner cellular layer of perichondrium made of

chondrogenic cells

14

Chondrogenic cells differentiate into (which do what)?

Chondroblasts which make ECM and become chondrocytes

15

T/F Interstitial growth contains perichondrium

F

16

In interstitial growth, as cells make ECM

They move away from one another

17

Where does interstitial growth occur

Articular cartilage (lacks perichondrium) and epiphyseal plates

18

T/F Interstitial growth has chondrenic cell layer

F

19

What are isogenous groups

In cartilage

Pairings of chondrocytes in lacunae

20

Territorial matrix

Immediately surrounding chondrocyte (more basophilic than interterritorial matrix)

21

Territorial matrix is poor in? Rich in?

Poor-collagen
rich-proteoglycans (chondroitin sulfate)

22

Interterritorial matrix

Area outside of territorial matrix (less basophilic that territorial matrix)

23

Interterritorial matrix rich in? poor in?

Rich-type II collagen
Poor-Proteoglycans (chondroitin sulfate)

24

3 types of cartilage

Hyaline cartilage

Elastic cartilage

Fibrocartilage

25

Places hylaine cartilage is

Nose

Tracheal rings

larynx

cartilage part of ribs

bronchi

articular surfaces

26

Color of hyaline cartilage

Blue/gray and translucent

27

Major component of hyaline cartilage

Type II collagen

28

Hyaline cartilage is important in

Endochondral ossification of long bones

29

Special form of hyaline cartilage

Articular cartilage (joint surfaces)
Not covered by perichondrium

30

Elastic cartilage phenotype

Yellow and opaque

31

Where is yellow cartilage found

ear pinnae

external and internal auditory tubes

parts of larynx

32

High concentration of what in elastic cartilage

Elastic cartilage with type II collagen

33

What has more chondrocytes, elastic cartilage or hyaline cartilage

Elastic cartilage

34

Where is fibrocartilage found

Connections of tendons to bone

Intervertebral discs

Pubic symphsis

Menisci of femorotibiial joint

Meniscus of TMJ

35

T/F Fibrocartilage includes perichondrium

F

36

What's found in fibrocartilage

Large bundles of Type I collagen

37

Fibrocartilage resists

Compression and shear forces

38

Patters seen in fibrocartilage

Herringbone pattern

Chondrocytes in rows of isogenic groups

39

Cartilage repair (with perichondrium) in young

Perichondrium still active and ensures supply of mesenchymal cells

Interstitial and appositional growth activity present

40

Cartilage repair (with perichondrum in adult)

Perichondrium not active=regenerative activity decreased\

Loss of interstitial and appositional growth

Repair by laying down granulation tissue which can turn into fibrocartilage (scar tissue)

41

Cartilage repair (without perichondrium)-Fibrocartilage

repairs poorly

42

Cartilage repair (without perichondrium)-Articular cartilage

Superificial-compensatory secretion by chondrocytes (pseudointerstial growth)

Full thickness-when damage to subchondral bone...stem cells differentiate into fibrous CT, fibrocartilage, or bone

43

Chondrogenic cell physical traits
-shape
-nucleus
-organelles
-mito
-ribosomes

Spindle shaped

Ovoid nucleus

Small Golgi appartus

Few mitochondria

Lots of free ribosomes

44

Chondrogenic cells differentiate into (2)

Chondroblasts or osteoprogenitor cells

45

Chondroblasts are derived from (2)

Mesenchymal cells within center of chondrification
OR
Chondrogenic cells of inner layer of perichondrium

46

Chondroblast physical traits
-Organelles
-Mito

Lots of RER

Well developed Golgi apparatus

Lots of mito

Lots of secretory vessels

47

T/F chondroblasts help with interstitial growth

T

48

Chondrocyte physical appearance
Young
-Oraganelles
-Mito

Old
-Organelles
-Ribosomes

Young
lots RER
well developed Golgi apparatus
lots of mito

Old
Lower amounts of organelles
Lots of free ribosomes

49

Chondrocytes and lacunae
-Dehydration

Chondrocytes are in lacunaes

If cell becomes dehydrated, cell pulls away from lacunae

White space, is lacunae ("shell":

50

Lavender haze surrounding chondrocyte nucles

cytoplasm

51

Purpose of articular cartilage

Cushion