Flashcards in Bovine Non-Infectious Infertility Deck (48):
How long does uterine involution typically take?
25-50 days, beef cows are shorter than dairy.
Blood-tinged fluid, tissue and debris.
What are 3 things that occur during uterine involution?
Lochia is expelled
Caruncles slough off (vasoconstriction causes necrosis)
Endometrial epithelium repairs
What are 6 factors affecting uterine involution?
Retained fetal membranes
Negative energy balance
Why does a beef cow's uterus involute faster than a dairy cow?
Because they have their calves with them which causes increased release of oxytocin.
How does inflammation affect uterine involution?
Too much inflammation will inhibit the expulsion, but you need a little bit to help get rid of what needs to go.
Why is manual removal of retained fetal membranes not the best option?
Because it breaks the interdigitations which can cause bleeding.
What hormones can you use as ecbolics to treat retained fetal membranes?
PGF2a (questionable value though)
Oxytocin (causes uterine contractions)
What is metritis?
Severe inflammation involving all layers of the uterus WITHIN 21 days of calving.
What is endometritis?
Inflammation of the endometrium, extending no deeper and occurring at least 21 days post-calving.
What clinical sign do you expect to see with metritis?
A fetid red-brown watery uterine discharge.
What is another name for puerperal metritis?
What are clinical signs of puerperal metritis?
Pyrexia, with dullness, inappetence/anorexia, tachycardia and dehydration.
How is metritis diagnosed?
Large uterus within 21 days post-calving, +/- pyrexia.
How do you treat metritis?
Systemic abx like Ceftiofur
What abx is labeled for treating metritis and what kind of milk withdrawal time does it have?
Ceftiofur is labeled for metritis. It was NO milk withdrawal time.
When treating food animals with abx, what do you ALWAYS need to make sure you do?
Use the abx that is labelled for the problem and use it EXACTLY as described on the bottle.
Do we do uterine lavage in food animals?
HELL NO! ore of a uterine evacuation, but French hates lavage.
What causes endometritis?
During parturition, the mechanical barriers that protect the uterus from contamination is breached.
What are the clinical signs of endometritis?
Purulent discharge in the vagina 21+ days post-calving.
What are 3 ways you can diagnose endometritis?
Examining the vaginal contents
What are 3 ways to get samples of the vaginal contents when trying to confirm endoetritis?
What finding must you have to confirm diagnosis of endometritis?
Mucopurulent material in vagina after 26 days post-partum
Why do we never put antibiotics into a cow's uterus?
Because nothing is labeled for intrauterine use, so we would have no idea of the withdrawal period.
What is important to note about using systemic abx to treat endometritis?
They would all be off label.
How might using hormones like PGF2a and oxytocin help treat endometritis?
They help expel things from the uterus.
What are the 3 main characteristics of a pyometra?
Purulent exudate in the uterus
Presence of a CL
How does a pyometra occur in a cow?
Occurs when metritis, endometritis, lochia or other contents are present and ovulation occurs resulting in a CL.
How do you diagnose a pyometra in a cow?
Hx of unobserved estrus or via rectal exam
If a cow has a pyometra, what will you feel on rectal palpation, and what else could it be?
Feel a thin-walled, fluid filled uterus. Could also be pregnant so must differentiate.
How do you treat pyometra in a cow?
Remove the CL with PGF2a
What is true anestrus?
Insufficient hormonal stimulus
What 3 factors affect true anestrus?
What is apparent anestrus?
Failure to detect estrus or failure to know that she's pregnant.
What is a freemartin?
An intersex cow. A masculinization of the female in a male/female twin situation.
How do you diagnose a freemartin?
Probe the vagina, it will be 1/3 the length of a normal vagina. Can also PCR or karyotype looking for presence of Y chromosome.
How long is post-partum anestrus?
What are 4 causes of post-partum anestrus?
High producing dairy cows
What is post-service anestrus?
The cow was cycling and bred, then never cycled again.
What is usualyl the cause of post-service anestrus?
What is the deffinition of an ovarian follicular cyst?
Thin walled, fluid filled structure >25mm with an absence of luteal tissue that persists for at least 10 days.
What is the primary sign of an ovarian follicular cyst?
What is the current theory on the signs seen with ovarian follicular cysts?
The hypothalamus becomes refractory to the estrogen produced by the follicle, resulting in no LH surge and therefore not ovulation.
How does an ovarian follicular cyst develop?
A dominant follicle reaches ovulatory size, but doesn't ovulate. Growth continues until it's cystic.
What percentage of cows with ovarian follicular cysts show anestrus?
How can you differentiate an ovarian follicular cyst from a dominant follicle on ultrasound?
Luteal tissue of a dominant follicle would be hyperechoic around the outside.
What used to be the treatment for ovarian follicular cysts?