Flashcards in Eutocia, Induction of Parturition Deck (67)
What are 4 things that should be done 4-6 weeks prior to foaling?
- watch more frequently
- Clean udder and legs
Open Caslicks if present
What are 4 recommended vaccinations for the pregnant mare for?
- EHV 1
- EHV 4
What can result if a Caslick is not removed prior to parturition?
What are the 3 best predictors for readiness for birth in the mare?
- Udder formation with the presence of colostrum
- Relaxation of cervix
- Gestational age greater than 330 days
What are 5 signs that parturition might be occurring soon?
- External conformation
- Udder development 2-4 weeks prior
- Cervical relaxation
- Milk calcium test kit/strips
- Milk electrolyte inversion
What are 3 signs of udder development to watch for?
- Milk in teats 1-2 weeks prior
- Waxing 24-48 hours prior
- Dripping of milk
Is minor separation of the vulva normal close to parturition?
Cervical dilation favors what?
Shorter delivery time
What are 4 things that might be seen with an unrelaxed cervix?
- Longer time from induction to delivery
- Possible increase in intra-partum asphyxia
- Longer time to stand and nurse
- More complications such as placental separation and dystocia
What are 3 things to watch for with milk composition?
- Inversion of Na+ and K+
- Increase in Ca++
- Changes in color/viscosity
Inversion of sodium and potassium indicates what?
Within 48 hours of parturition
"Foal Watch" should be used once a day until how many ppm are reached?
- 125 ppm
- Then test 2x per day
The best clinical use of the milk pH test is to predict what?
When a mare is NOT ready to foal.
Does pH increase or decrease near foaling?
What type of mares may not have significant development or colostrum production?
Restlessness, tail swishing, mild colic, sweating, fetus re-orients itself and cervix dilation can be seen with what stage of parturition?
Mare gets up and down, forceful abdominal contractions occur, appearance of amnion covered fetal limbs at vulva can be seen with what stage of parturition?
Mild colic signs can be seen with what stage of parturition?
Stage 1 of parturition ends with what?
Ends with rupture of chorioallantois
Stage 2 of parturition ends with what?
Ends with expulsion of fetus
Stage 3 of parturition ends with what?
Ends with passage of placenta
What are 5 things that should be done with the mare post-foaling?
- Examine for twin
- Examine for any trauma
- Assess udder
- Assess significance of any colic signs
- Make sure placenta is expelled by about 3 hours
A mare is considered to have retained fetal membranes if the placenta has not been expelled by what time frame?
3 hours post-foaling
What are 3 reasons for performing induction in a mare?
- Gestational abnormalities
- Mare with previous dystocia or history of placental separation
What are 2 examples of gestational abnormalities that would indicate the use of induction?
- Rupture of pre-pubic tendon
What are 4 complications that can be seen with the induction of parturition?
- Premature placental separation
- Fetal hypoxia
Fetal maturation is associated with what?
Increased adrenocortical activity
When does increased adrenocoritcal activity occur in most species?
When does it occur in horses?
- A few weeks prior to birth
- 24-48 hours before birth
The foal needs to be what before the mare can be induced?
Foal needs to be mature