Canine Postpartum Reproductive Diseases Flashcards Preview

Theriogenology > Canine Postpartum Reproductive Diseases > Flashcards

Flashcards in Canine Postpartum Reproductive Diseases Deck (87):
1

What are 4 reasons for veterinary involvement in obstetrics?

- Timely intervention
- To increase live birth (minimize still births)
- To minimize morbidity and mortality in the dam
- To promote increased survival of neonates during the first week of life

2

Placental sites from previous pregnancies can be seen in what species?

Dog

3

Inflammation of the entire uterus is known as what?

Metritis

4

Metritis includes what layers of the uterus?

- Endometrium
- Myometrium

5

What are 3 clinical signs of systemic illness that can be seen with metritis?

- Fever
- Depression
- Purulent vulvar discharge

6

What are 4 diagnostic methods that can be used to diagnose metritis?

- CBC
- Vaginal cytology
- Culture
- US

7

What do you treat metritis with?

PGF2a

8

If the uterine wall is less than 1-2 mm thick, what should be avoided due to the risk of rupturing the uterus?

Ecbolics

9

What are 2 forms of supportive therapy that can be used with metritis?

- Fluids
- Antibiotics

10

Pyometra is considered what type of disease?

Diestral disease

11

Pyometra occurs during what phase?

Progesterone phase

12

When is pyometra usually seen in the bitch?
In the queen?

- 60-90 days post-estrus
- Anytime in the queen

13

Is pyometra more commonly seen in younger or older females?

Older

14

What is a common media reason for spaying females not intended for breeding?

Pyometra

15

Pyometra may be associated with what condition?

Cystic endometrial hyperplasia

16

What does CEHMP stand for?

Cystic Endometrial Hyperplasia - Metrisi Pyometra complex

17

Estrogen receptors are normally down-regulated by what?

Increasing P4 in diestrus

18

What does progesterone stimulate?

Proliferation and secretion of endometrial glands

19

What is usually defective in a dog with cystic endometrial hyperplasia?

Normal down-regulation of estrogen receptors due to increasing P4 may be defective.

20

Dogs with cystic endometrial hyperplasia get prolonged effects of what?
What does this do?

- Prolonged effects of E2 on endometrium
- Increases number of P4 receptors entering the female into diestrus

21

Which organism is most commonly involved with cystic endometrial hyperplasia?

E. coli

22

Which type of pyometra is less severely ill, open or closed?

Open

23

With which type of pyometra do you see copious red-brown to yellow-green foul smelling vulvar discharge, open or closed?

Open

24

With which type of pyometra do you see abdominal swelling, open or closed?

Closed

25

Depression with pyometra is most often seen with what?

Toxemia

26

What can lead to PU/PD with pyometra?

Endotoxins from E. coli

27

What are 3 diagnostic techniques for pyometra?

- Abdominal palpation
- Radiography
- US

28

What is the treatment of choice for both open and closed pyometra?
What needs to be done first?

- OHE
- Need to stabilize first

29

What is a medical therapy option for pyometra?
This can only be used with which type of pyometra?

- PGF2a (Lutalyse or Estrumate)
- Open

30

What does PGF2a cause when used for pyometra?

Causes smooth muscles contraction for uterine evacuation.

31

How long should PGF2a injections be used when treating for pyometra?

Continue until progesterone is baseline and uterine contents are gone as seen on US.

32

What are 5 possible side effects that can be seen with PGF2a use?

- Panting
- Salivation
- Vomiting
- Defecation
- Vocalization (queens)

33

When should a culture be done with a pyometra?

Once cervix is open and discharging.

34

What are 3 recommendations for a breeding bitch?

- Breed starting early
- Don't miss a cycle
- Spay when done breeding

35

The incidence of uterine prolapse is increased with what?

Dystocia

36

How does a uterine prolapse clinically present?

Firm tubular mass protruding form the vulva.

37

When does a uterine prolapse typically occur in a dog?

During or following parturition

38

What is the treatment for a uterine prolapse?

OHE

39

A vaginal prolapse where you may see the floor of the vagina or may not see it at all is what type?

Type 1

40

A vaginal prolapse where you see the floor and walls through the vulva, which looks pear-shaped, is what type?

Type 2

41

A vaginal prolapse where you see the entire vaginal circumference, which looks like a doughnut), is what type?

Type 3

42

A vaginal prolapse in a bitch should regress after what occurs?
What can be given to include this?

- Ovulation
- GnRH or hCG

43

What needs to be done with a vaginal prolapse while waiting for it to regress?

Keep it clean and moist

44

What are 2 surgical options for treating a vaginal prolapse?

- Purse-string suture
- OHE or ovariectomy (remove hormone source)

45

What hormone are vaginal prolapsed associated with?

Estrogen

46

What are 4 differentials for tissue protruding from the vulva?

- Vaginal neoplasia
- Vaginal hyperplasia
- Vestibular mass (abscess)
- Intersex (enlarged clitoris)

47

What are 5 differentials for perineal masses?

- Tumors
- Abscess
- Hematomas
- Seromas
- Vaginal Leiomyoma

48

What is the usual treatment for a perineal mass?

Treat with surgical debridement then obliterate the space the mass was lying in.

49

The clinical signs of fever and leukocytosis along with enlarged, hot and painful glands is indicative of what?

Mastitis

50

What are 3 common causative agents of mastitis?

- Coliforms
- Strep
- Staph

51

What are 4 ways to supportive care/treatment methods for mastitis?

- Hot pack
- Strip abnormal milk
- NSAIDs (carprofen)
- Antibiotics (clavamox or chloramphenicol)

52

What should be done with a gangrenous gland?

Surgically remove dead or gangrenous gland

53

Spontaneous flow of milk from a mammary gland unassociated with pregnancy is known as what?

Galactorrhea

54

Galactorrhea occurs in response to what?
When can this be seen?

- Decreasing P4 stimulation
- 2-3 months after estrus and 3-4 days after diestrual OHE

55

What is a normal phenomenon that can be seen in an intact bitch?

Galactorrhea

56

Does galactorrhea predispose a bitch to disease of the reproductive tract?

No

57

Spontaneous development of the mammary gland with discharge that is clear with no milk is seen with what condition?

False pregnancy

58

Is treatment usually necessary with a false pregnancy in a dog?

No

59

How long can false pregnancies last?

May last up to 6 weeks

60

What can be used to dry up secretions seen with a false pregnancy in a dog?

Cabergoline

61

What is the second most common tumor type in a dog?

Mammary neoplasia

62

What are 3 brand categories of malignant tumors in dogs?

- Carcinomas
- Mixed malignant tumors
- Sarcomas

63

What is the most common benign tumor seen in a dog?

Benign mixed mammary tumor

64

The presence of a benign mammary tumor increases the chance of what?

Developing a malignant mass

65

Intact female dogs have what risk of developing mammary tumors compared to a spayed dog?

7 times greater risk

66

What is the risk of developing malignant tumors if the dog is spayed before her first estrous cycle?

0.5%

67

What is the risk of developing malignant tumors if the dog is spayed after her first estrous cycle?

8%

68

What is the risk of developing malignant tumors if the dog is spayed after her second estrous cycle?

26%

69

OHE is not an effective preventative method for development of malignant tumors in female dogs after what point?

- Greater than 2.5 years of age or has cycled more than twice

70

What are 2 common locations of metastasis seen with mammary neoplasia in dogs?

- Lungs
- Lymph nodes

71

How is diagnosis of mammary usually made?

Surgical excision then staging conducted at laboratory

72

What is the recommended treatment for mammary neoplasia in the dog?

Surgery

73

What can be used as an adjunctive therapy with surgery as a treatment form mammary neoplasia?

Chemotherapy

74

What is the prognosis for mammary neoplasia?

Good

75

Survival of mammary neoplasia 2 years after diagnosis is more common if what 4 factors are present?

- Benign
- Slow growth rate
- Small tumor size
- Lack of local infiltration

76

Eclampsia is seen with what?

Hypocalcemia

77

Hypocalcemia/eclampsia occurs primary in what type of dogs?

Small nervous breeds

78

Is hypocalcemia/eclampsia heritable?

Hereditary in some lines

79

What are 7 progressive clinical signs seen with hypocalcemia/eclampsia?

- Panting
- Pacing
- Muscle tremors
- Ataxia
- Hyperthermia (106-108F)
- Tonic-clonic convulsions
- Death

80

What are 3 aspects of treatment for hypocalcemia/eclampsia?

- IV calcium gluconate given to effect
- Oral calcium supplements for maintenance
- Wean the pups if possible

81

What does SIPS stand for?

Sub-involution of placental sites

82

Sub-involution of placental sites can lead to what clinical sign?

Persistent uterine bleeding

83

Where can erosions be seen with SIPS?

In endometrium

84

What can be seen histologically in the lesions seen with SIPS?

Multinuclear giant cells (trophoblast cells)

85

T/F: SIPS is usually self-limiting.

True

86

What can be used to try and treat SIPS?

PGF2a

87

SIPS is not related to what 2 conditions?

- Postpartum metritis
- Future infertility