Flashcards in Sheep and Goat Reproduction Deck (168):
What species are the earliest domesticated animals?
Sheep and goats
What are 4 things to consider with reproductive management of goats?
Purpose of the farm
Time to achieve goal
What type of kidding do you want if the purpose of your farm is dairy?
Year round kidding for constant supply
What are 5 breeds of dairy goat?
What type of kidding do you want if the purpose of your farm is meat?
How long do you keep a buck with the does to get a uniform kid crop?
32 days (1.5 cycles)
What are 5 breeds of meat goat?
Tennessee stiff-leged (fainting goats)
What are 2 breeds of fiber goat?
What are the 4 types of production in sheep?
What do you look for when selecting for increased reproduction?
Select for twins and triplets.
What body weight do you want a sheep or goat to reach before they enter the breeding herd?
60-70% of their adult weight
When do sheep and goats reach puberty?
5-15 months (>60% adult body weight)
What factors affect sheep and goats reaching puberty?
Time of lambing
How long can you typically keep a ewe or doe in your breeding herd?
What do you want to watch for in ewes and does to determine drop in production?
Decrease in number of babies (eg. usually has triplets now having twins)
How long is the estrous cycle in the ewe?
How long is the estrous cycle in the doe?
Which species has CL dependent production of Progesterone?
And goats and sheep short or long-day breeders?
How does day-length affect cyclicity?
Increasing darkness increases melatonin from the pineal gland, which increases GnRH from the hypothalamus which releases LH.
What does estrus in the doe look like?
Tail wagging, bleating, restlessness, pacing and vulvar swelling.
What does estrus in the ewe look like?
Vulvar swelling, anorexia.
When do you put vasectomized teaser rams out with the ewes?
14 days prior
What is flushing?
20-30 % increase in nutrient uptake 2-3 weeks prior to breeding.
When would you flush a ram?
8 weeks prior to breeding
What 2 things can be done to manipulate reproduction in a doe or ewe when they are in anestrus?
Manipulation of lights to increase darkness.
NOTE: will through all you've got at these ladies.
What is the "Buck or Ram effect"?
Remove sight, sound and smell of the males for at least 30 days. Once the females have gone through the transition period, then reintroduce the males. Females will go into heat like crazy.
Note: Will usually have a silent heat.
When the does and ewes are in a transitional period, what 2 things can be done to manipulate reproduction?
Buck or Ram Effect
When the doe or ewe is cycling, what 2 things can you do to manipulate reproduction?
What is a CIDR and how long can it be used?
Intravaginal implant of progesterone. Can be used for 12-14 days.
NOTE: Cows can use for 5-7 days.
When using a CIDR to manipulate reproduction in ewes and does, what do we need to keep in mind?
We need to make sure we have enough males to breed them.
NOTE: Usually, will be doing AI.
What is MGA and when can we use it in sheep and goats?
MGA = Melengesterol acetate
Note labeled for sheep or goats so you need a REALLY good relationship with the owner.
When can you use prostaglandins to manupluate reproduction in the sheep/goat?
Only works during the breeding season.
How is prostaglanding dosed in sheep/goats to mainpulate reproduction?
Two doses, 9 days apart.
NOTE: We tend to do 13 days apart.
What is the key to maternal recognition of pregnancy in the sheep/goat?
What type of placentation doe sheep/goats have?
What BCS do you want to have your female goats/sheep at during pregnancy?
What are 4 ways to diagnose pregnancy in a sheep/goat?
Non-return to heat (6-17 days)
Ultrasound (20+ days)
"Bagging up" (late)
"Ballottment (100 days)
Why is "bagging up" not a very reliable way to diagnose pregnancy?
Because some animals will bag up for no reason at all.
When can you see a fetal heartbeat on sheep and goats via transabdominal ultrasound?
~ day 25
When can you see placentomes on sheep and goats via transabdominal ultrasound?
~ day 35
When can you see skeletal structure on sheep and goats via transabdominal ultrasound?
~ day 60
How long should you tell owners to wait after they take the buck or ram out to ultrasound their females?
At least 35-40 days. Gives us a good idea that she's pregnant.
When looking for placentomes on transabdominal ultrasound, what do they look like?
Doughtnuts and "C"s
If you're going to try to diagnose twins, what do you need to make sure you can see on ultrasound?
Need to be able to SEE two fetuses on the screen at the same time.
Why do we need to be careful when using a steroid assay to diagnose pregnancy?
Because they're not always accurate/true. If progesterone is high, it doesn't absolutely mean the female is pregnant.
What is the gestation length of sheep/goats?
NOTE: Earlier for sheep, later for does
What are 3 signs that might be noted at the beginning of parturition?
What is the first stage of parturition in sheep/goats?
How long does the first stage of parturition last in sheep/goats?
What is the second stage of parturition in sheep/goats?
Cervix stretched open, oxytocin release, abdominal press.
How long does the second stage of parturition last in sheepgoats?
20 minutes - 2 hours
Roughly how long does it take to expel the placenta in sheep and goats?
How long do you expect it to take for a newborn lamb to stand an suckle?
30 minutes to stand, 2 hours to suckle
How common is a normal, uneventful kidding/lambing?
Only 3-5% need help.
In sheep and goats, when do you decide to intervene?
If there have been 30+ minutes of contractions and no fetus.
What are the 3 most common causes of dystocia in sheep/goats?
Fetal postural abnormalities
Multiple fetuses trying to get out at the same time
Single births (baby is too big to fit through the canal)
What is ringwomb?
Failure of the cervix to dilate completely.
How do you treat ringwomb?
C-section must be performed.
Why is it so important to wear sleeves and gloves when working on a sheep or goat dystocia?
Because most causes of abortion are ZOONOTIC!!
What are 2 big things you want to do for aftercare for the doe?
Check for additional fetuses
Check for sufficient milk
What are 4 important things to do for the kids/lambs after they're born?
Remove fetal membranes
Keep them warm
Ensure they get colostrum (within first 6-8 hours)
How long does uterine involution take in the sheep/goat?
What are 3 things that have an effect on the postpartum period?
Suckling (suppressive effect)
Breed (some tropical breeds breed all year)
When do we see pregnancy toxemia?
In the final trimester.
What is the cause of pregnancy toxemia?
Negative energy balance.
What ewes are more prone to developing pregnancy toxemia?
Obese or extremely thing ewes.
What are the 2 main signs of pregnancy toxemia?
What are the 3 main treatments of pregnancy toxemia?
Propylene glycol by mouth
NOTE: Treatment must be immediate and aggressive.
How do steroids help in induction of parturition?
They help to increase lung surfactant.
What can you use to induce parturition in sheep/goats?
15mg Dexamethasone IM and 15mg Estradiol IM
What is not effective for inducing parturition in sheep (however can be used to abort before day 60), but can be used in goats?
What are 3 ways to prevent pregnancy toxemia?
Maintain a good level of nutrition
ID Animals with multiple fetuses and supplement feed intake slowly over gestation.
Spot herd checks of urine ketones
When do we typically see vaginal prolapse in the ewe?
What are 2 major causes of vaginal prolapse in the ewe?
Estrogen (from eating clovers)
Tail-docking too short
NOTE: Dogs will also have prolapse due to estrogen.
How do you treat a ewe with a vaginal prolapse?
Use an epidural, clean it and replace.
What are 3 options to retain the ewe's vagina after prolapse?
When do we typically see a uterine prolapse?
Post-partum, risk increases with dystocia.
How do you treat a uterine prolapse in a goat/sheep?
Elevate the hindquarters and reduce the prolapse.
After how long should the placenta be expelled from the goat/sheep?
What are 5 potential causes for a retained placenta in a sheep or goat?
Obesity in a doe
How do you treat a sheep or goat with retained fetal membranes?
If animal seems well, can wait to see if expelled by 12 hours. Otherwise, use oxytocin or PGF2a.
How common is metritis and endometritis in the sheep and goat?
Not very common.
How do you diagnose metritis or endometritis in the sheep/goat?
Foul smelling discharge
Animal may be ill
What are 4 things you would use to treat metritis/endometritis in a small ruminant?
Ecbolics (induces uterine contractions)
When do we typically see milk fever in small ruminants?
The last 2 weeks of gestation
What can milk fever in the small ruminant resemble?
How do we treat milk fever in the small ruminant?
IV or oral calcium
How do we prevent milk fever in the small ruminant?
Balanced ration during gestation.
What species do we not see cystic ovaries in?
NOTE: Occasionally seen in goats.
What percentage of non-infectious infertility in sheep and goats is from genetic abnormalities?
After how many days can we call it early embryonic death in the small ruminant?
After 17 days
What percent of zygote loss is normal?
What are 4 things that can cause nutritional infertility in small ruminants?
Copper (too little)
Copper (too much)
What is the toxic substance from veratrum californicum?
What does alkaloid cyclopamine cause if ingested between 12-14 days gestation?
If veratrum californicum is eaten during early gestation, what can it cause in small ruminants?
Early embryonic death
What 3 things does locoweed cause in small ruminants?
Decreased spermatogenesis in the ram
What 3 things does broomweed cause in small ruminants?
Retained fetal membranes
What species (sheep or goats) appear to be more sensitive to estrogen producing plants?
What small ruminant species do we tend to see pseudopregnancies in quite often?
What do we see in a small ruminant pseudopregnancy?
"Cloudburst" condition where there is a continuous luteal phase and the uterus fills with mucus so when you ultrasound, the uterus will be huge, but empty.
How do you treat a small ruminant pseudopregnancy?
Give them some PGF2a
How is bluetonge virus transmitted?
What type of virus causes bluetongue?
What species is the reservoir for bluetonge?
NOTE: Sheep and goats are much more affected than the cattle.
What are the top 4 clinical signs beside abortion?
What 2 reproductive problems can bluetongue cause in sheep and goats?
What 2 fetal melformations do we see with bluetongue in sheep and goats?
What are 2 other diseases that look like bluetongue and what lesion makes us think that?
Foot and mouth dz (Ulcerated coronary band or mouth and nose)
What disease is Border Disease Virus in sheep/goats similar to in cattle?
What is another name for Border Disease Virus in sheep and goats?
Hairy shaker lamb
NOTE: These are like the PI calves in BVDV. Their wool will be darker and they will have an abnormal shake.
How do you diagnose BDV in sheep/goats?
What are 3 ways to prevent BDV?
Isolate new arrivals
What sort of reproductive problems do we see with BDV in small ruminants?
All the things (EED, resportion, mummies, congenital defects, PI animals)
How is Cache Valley dz transmitted?
Where do we see Cache Valley dz?
What major congenital defect do we see from Cache Valley fever?
NOTE: Can see herd outbreaks of this dz
What are 2 ways to prevent Cache Valley dz?
Isolate from mosquitoes
Where do we see Akabane virus?
Australia, Africa, Asia
What is Akabane very similar to?
Cache Valley dz
What congenital defect does Akabane cause?
What are the 2 types of Brucella that we need to worry about in small ruminants?
Brucella melitensis (goats)
Brucella ovis (sheep)
NOTE: Don't see B. melitensis in the US so much, but we do see problems with B. ovis in our sheep.
What do we see Brucella melitensis cause in goats?
Abortion in the ewe.
What do we see Brucella ovis cause in sheep?
Epididymitis in the rams
What is the most significan't cause of abortion in sheep in North America?
What type of campylobacter causes large outbreaks of abortion in small ruminants?
Campylobacter fetus fetus
What clinical signs do we see in small ruminants?
Late term abortions and stillborns.
NOTE: Rare in goats
NOTE: Ewes don't get ill.
REMEMBER: Sheep go to camp, and goats eat clams.
What lesions do we see with Campylobacter in small ruminants?
Target lesions of hepatic necrosis
How can we prevent Campylobacter in small ruminants?
Vaccinate before breeding and booster
How do we handle a Campylobacter outbreak in small ruminants?
Tx with tetracyclines
Remove pregnant ewes
What is an important infectious cause of abortions in goats?
NOTE: Also affects sheep
How does Chlamydia cause abortions in goats?
Placentits leads to late term abortion.
What lesions do we see with Chlamydia infections in small ruminants?
Necrotic placentitis of cotyledonary and intercotyledonary areas.
What is another name for Chlamydophila abortus?
Anzootic abortion of ewes
NOTE: This is misleading because it affects goats more.
How do you treat/prevent Chlamydia in small ruminants?
Tetracyclines in an outbreak
What are 4 other things that Chlamydia can produce in sheep and goats?
What is the causative agent in Q fever?
Although we don't see it very often, what would we see if Q fever is around?
See abortion outbreaks (stillbirth or late term)
NOTE: Usually subclinical
How do we diagnose Q fever?
See placental lesions of necrotizing placentits with necrosis of cotyledonary and intercotyledonary regions (similar to Chlamydophila).
How do we treat Q fever?
What are 2 major points of listeriosis in small ruminants?
Causes a sick adult animal
Where does listeria come from?
Rotting hay or silage
How is listeriosis treated in small ruminants?
What are 3 ways toxoplasmosis can be transmitted to humans?
Raw goat milk
Which small ruminant species do we see toxoplasma in more?
Goats > sheep
If infected with toxoplasma early on, what do we see in pregnant small ruminants?
If infected with toxoplasma in mid- to late gestation, what do we see in pregnant small ruminants?
Mummification or abortion
When might you see neurological forms of toxoplasma infections in small ruminants?
If they are immunosuppressed.
What is the placenta supposed to look like if you see abortions from toxoplamsa infections?
A pepperoni pizza
What do you want to make sure has happened before you assess a ram or buck for breeding soundness?
What do you want to keep in mind when assessing breeding soundness in bucks and rams?
Past breeding history. Most owners want to change out ot a new male every 2 years to keep genetic diversity.
What 5 things do you want to check on your physical exam for breeding soundness of small ruminants?
Eyes (can they see the ladies?)
Legs (can they mount the ladies?)
Polled goats (be careful because association with intersex gene)
What has a positive correlation with sperm output in small ruminants?
Why is it important to make sure that rams and bucks are in good body condition BEFORE breeding season?
They are very focused and not so great and maintaining themselves.
What 3 things do we evaluate sperm for?
How do we evaluate gross motility in the small ruminant?
Undiluted on low power
How do we evaluate progressive motility in the small ruminant?
Diluted with a cover slip
How do we do a morphology assessment on semen?
Count 100 cells and record normal vs abnormal.
What scrotal circumference is questionable?
What scrotal circumference is acceptable?
What scrotal circumference is exceptional?
What are 5 causes of infertility in the male small ruminant?
Epididymitis in older animals
Epididymitis in younger animals
What is a varicocele?
Localized dilation of the spermatic vein.
What do you worry about with epidiymitis in an older small ruminant?
Brucella ovis (rare in bucks)
If you have epididymitis in a younger small ruminant, what do you treat it with?
NOTE: Doesn't always work.
What is a sperm granuloma and what is it associated with?
Accumulation of sperm in one spot due to the tract being smaller than normal. This causes an immune reaction.
Associated with intersex.