Sheep and Goat Reproduction Flashcards Preview

Theriogenology > Sheep and Goat Reproduction > Flashcards

Flashcards in Sheep and Goat Reproduction Deck (168):
1

What species are the earliest domesticated animals?

Sheep and goats

2

What are 4 things to consider with reproductive management of goats?

Purpose of the farm
Farm capabilities
Animal capabilities
Time to achieve goal

3

What type of kidding do you want if the purpose of your farm is dairy?

Year round kidding for constant supply

4

What are 5 breeds of dairy goat?

Nubian
Toggenburg
Alpine
Lamancha
Saanan

5

What type of kidding do you want if the purpose of your farm is meat?

Controlled kidding

6

How long do you keep a buck with the does to get a uniform kid crop?

32 days (1.5 cycles)

7

What are 5 breeds of meat goat?

Boer
Kiko
Pygmy
Tennessee stiff-leged (fainting goats)
Spanish

8

What are 2 breeds of fiber goat?

Angora
Cashmere

9

What are the 4 types of production in sheep?

Meat
Wool
Milk
Pet

10

What do you look for when selecting for increased reproduction?

Select for twins and triplets.

11

What body weight do you want a sheep or goat to reach before they enter the breeding herd?

60-70% of their adult weight

12

When do sheep and goats reach puberty?

5-15 months (>60% adult body weight)

13

What factors affect sheep and goats reaching puberty?

Time of lambing
Nutrition
Ram selection

14

How long can you typically keep a ewe or doe in your breeding herd?

3-6 years

15

What do you want to watch for in ewes and does to determine drop in production?

Decrease in number of babies (eg. usually has triplets now having twins)

16

How long is the estrous cycle in the ewe?

17 days

17

How long is the estrous cycle in the doe?

21 days

18

Which species has CL dependent production of Progesterone?

The goat

19

And goats and sheep short or long-day breeders?

Short-day breeders

20

How does day-length affect cyclicity?

Increasing darkness increases melatonin from the pineal gland, which increases GnRH from the hypothalamus which releases LH.

21

What does estrus in the doe look like?

Tail wagging, bleating, restlessness, pacing and vulvar swelling.

22

What does estrus in the ewe look like?

Vulvar swelling, anorexia.

23

When do you put vasectomized teaser rams out with the ewes?

14 days prior

24

What is flushing?

20-30 % increase in nutrient uptake 2-3 weeks prior to breeding.

25

When would you flush a ram?

8 weeks prior to breeding

26

What 2 things can be done to manipulate reproduction in a doe or ewe when they are in anestrus?

Hormonal manipulation
Manipulation of lights to increase darkness.

NOTE: will through all you've got at these ladies.

27

What is the "Buck or Ram effect"?

Remove sight, sound and smell of the males for at least 30 days. Once the females have gone through the transition period, then reintroduce the males. Females will go into heat like crazy.

Note: Will usually have a silent heat.

28

When the does and ewes are in a transitional period, what 2 things can be done to manipulate reproduction?

Buck or Ram Effect
Hormonal manipulation

29

When the doe or ewe is cycling, what 2 things can you do to manipulate reproduction?

Prostaglandins
Hormonal manipulation

30

What is a CIDR and how long can it be used?

Intravaginal implant of progesterone. Can be used for 12-14 days.

NOTE: Cows can use for 5-7 days.

31

When using a CIDR to manipulate reproduction in ewes and does, what do we need to keep in mind?

We need to make sure we have enough males to breed them.

NOTE: Usually, will be doing AI.

32

What is MGA and when can we use it in sheep and goats?

MGA = Melengesterol acetate

Note labeled for sheep or goats so you need a REALLY good relationship with the owner.

33

When can you use prostaglandins to manupluate reproduction in the sheep/goat?

Only works during the breeding season.

34

How is prostaglanding dosed in sheep/goats to mainpulate reproduction?

Two doses, 9 days apart.

NOTE: We tend to do 13 days apart.

35

What is the key to maternal recognition of pregnancy in the sheep/goat?

Interferon tau

36

What type of placentation doe sheep/goats have?

Cotyledonary epitheliochorial

37

What BCS do you want to have your female goats/sheep at during pregnancy?

2.5-3

38

What are 4 ways to diagnose pregnancy in a sheep/goat?

Non-return to heat (6-17 days)
Ultrasound (20+ days)
"Bagging up" (late)
"Ballottment (100 days)

39

Why is "bagging up" not a very reliable way to diagnose pregnancy?

Because some animals will bag up for no reason at all.

40

When can you see a fetal heartbeat on sheep and goats via transabdominal ultrasound?

~ day 25

41

When can you see placentomes on sheep and goats via transabdominal ultrasound?

~ day 35

42

When can you see skeletal structure on sheep and goats via transabdominal ultrasound?

~ day 60

43

How long should you tell owners to wait after they take the buck or ram out to ultrasound their females?

At least 35-40 days. Gives us a good idea that she's pregnant.

44

When looking for placentomes on transabdominal ultrasound, what do they look like?

Doughtnuts and "C"s

45

If you're going to try to diagnose twins, what do you need to make sure you can see on ultrasound?

Need to be able to SEE two fetuses on the screen at the same time.

46

Why do we need to be careful when using a steroid assay to diagnose pregnancy?

Because they're not always accurate/true. If progesterone is high, it doesn't absolutely mean the female is pregnant.

47

What is the gestation length of sheep/goats?

140-155 days

NOTE: Earlier for sheep, later for does

48

What are 3 signs that might be noted at the beginning of parturition?

Restlessness
Decreased appetite
Vulvar swelling

49

What is the first stage of parturition in sheep/goats?

Uterine contractions.

50

How long does the first stage of parturition last in sheep/goats?

2-8 hours

51

What is the second stage of parturition in sheep/goats?

Cervix stretched open, oxytocin release, abdominal press.

52

How long does the second stage of parturition last in sheepgoats?

20 minutes - 2 hours

53

Roughly how long does it take to expel the placenta in sheep and goats?

2-4 hours

54

How long do you expect it to take for a newborn lamb to stand an suckle?

30 minutes to stand, 2 hours to suckle

55

How common is a normal, uneventful kidding/lambing?

Only 3-5% need help.

56

In sheep and goats, when do you decide to intervene?

If there have been 30+ minutes of contractions and no fetus.

57

What are the 3 most common causes of dystocia in sheep/goats?

Fetal postural abnormalities
Multiple fetuses trying to get out at the same time
Single births (baby is too big to fit through the canal)

58

What is ringwomb?

Failure of the cervix to dilate completely.

59

How do you treat ringwomb?

C-section must be performed.

60

Why is it so important to wear sleeves and gloves when working on a sheep or goat dystocia?

Because most causes of abortion are ZOONOTIC!!

61

What are 2 big things you want to do for aftercare for the doe?

Check for additional fetuses
Check for sufficient milk

62

What are 4 important things to do for the kids/lambs after they're born?

Remove fetal membranes
Keep them warm
Dip navel
Ensure they get colostrum (within first 6-8 hours)

63

How long does uterine involution take in the sheep/goat?

30 days

64

What are 3 things that have an effect on the postpartum period?

Suckling (suppressive effect)
Seasonal
Breed (some tropical breeds breed all year)

65

When do we see pregnancy toxemia?

In the final trimester.

66

What is the cause of pregnancy toxemia?

Negative energy balance.

67

What ewes are more prone to developing pregnancy toxemia?

Obese or extremely thing ewes.

68

What are the 2 main signs of pregnancy toxemia?

Depression
Recumbency

69

What are the 3 main treatments of pregnancy toxemia?

Remove fetuses
Glucose IV
Propylene glycol by mouth

NOTE: Treatment must be immediate and aggressive.

70

How do steroids help in induction of parturition?

They help to increase lung surfactant.

71

What can you use to induce parturition in sheep/goats?

15mg Dexamethasone IM and 15mg Estradiol IM

72

What is not effective for inducing parturition in sheep (however can be used to abort before day 60), but can be used in goats?

Prostaglandin

73

What are 3 ways to prevent pregnancy toxemia?

Maintain a good level of nutrition
ID Animals with multiple fetuses and supplement feed intake slowly over gestation.
Spot herd checks of urine ketones

74

When do we typically see vaginal prolapse in the ewe?

Prepartum

75

What are 2 major causes of vaginal prolapse in the ewe?

Estrogen (from eating clovers)
Tail-docking too short

NOTE: Dogs will also have prolapse due to estrogen.

76

How do you treat a ewe with a vaginal prolapse?

Use an epidural, clean it and replace.

77

What are 3 options to retain the ewe's vagina after prolapse?

Plastic retainer
Shoelace pattern
Buhener stitch

78

When do we typically see a uterine prolapse?

Post-partum, risk increases with dystocia.

79

How do you treat a uterine prolapse in a goat/sheep?

Elevate the hindquarters and reduce the prolapse.

80

After how long should the placenta be expelled from the goat/sheep?

6 hours

81

What are 5 potential causes for a retained placenta in a sheep or goat?

Mineral deficiencies
Infectious abortions
Obesity in a doe
Hypocalcemia
Dystocia

82

How do you treat a sheep or goat with retained fetal membranes?

If animal seems well, can wait to see if expelled by 12 hours. Otherwise, use oxytocin or PGF2a.

83

How common is metritis and endometritis in the sheep and goat?

Not very common.

84

How do you diagnose metritis or endometritis in the sheep/goat?

Foul smelling discharge
Animal may be ill

85

What are 4 things you would use to treat metritis/endometritis in a small ruminant?

Abx
Ecbolics (induces uterine contractions)
NSAIDs
IV Fluids

86

When do we typically see milk fever in small ruminants?

The last 2 weeks of gestation

87

What can milk fever in the small ruminant resemble?

Pregnancy toxemia

88

How do we treat milk fever in the small ruminant?

IV or oral calcium

89

How do we prevent milk fever in the small ruminant?

Balanced ration during gestation.

90

What species do we not see cystic ovaries in?

Sheep

NOTE: Occasionally seen in goats.

91

What percentage of non-infectious infertility in sheep and goats is from genetic abnormalities?

2-5%

92

After how many days can we call it early embryonic death in the small ruminant?

After 17 days

93

What percent of zygote loss is normal?

30%

94

What are 4 things that can cause nutritional infertility in small ruminants?

Iodine
Copper (too little)
Selenium
Copper (too much)

95

What is the toxic substance from veratrum californicum?

Alkaloid cyclopamine

96

What does alkaloid cyclopamine cause if ingested between 12-14 days gestation?

Cyclops

97

If veratrum californicum is eaten during early gestation, what can it cause in small ruminants?

Early embryonic death

98

What 3 things does locoweed cause in small ruminants?

Abortion
Arthrogryposis
Decreased spermatogenesis in the ram

99

What 3 things does broomweed cause in small ruminants?

Abortion
Retained fetal membranes
Arthrogryposis

100

What species (sheep or goats) appear to be more sensitive to estrogen producing plants?

Sheep

101

What small ruminant species do we tend to see pseudopregnancies in quite often?

Goats

102

What do we see in a small ruminant pseudopregnancy?

"Cloudburst" condition where there is a continuous luteal phase and the uterus fills with mucus so when you ultrasound, the uterus will be huge, but empty.

103

How do you treat a small ruminant pseudopregnancy?

Give them some PGF2a

104

How is bluetonge virus transmitted?

Cullicoides

105

What type of virus causes bluetongue?

Orbivirus

106

What species is the reservoir for bluetonge?

Cattle

NOTE: Sheep and goats are much more affected than the cattle.

107

What are the top 4 clinical signs beside abortion?

Fever
Swollen ears
Swollen face
Swollen tongue

108

What 2 reproductive problems can bluetongue cause in sheep and goats?

Abortion
Fetal malformations

109

What 2 fetal melformations do we see with bluetongue in sheep and goats?

Hydrocephaly
Arthrogryposis

110

What are 2 other diseases that look like bluetongue and what lesion makes us think that?

Foot and mouth dz (Ulcerated coronary band or mouth and nose)
Vesicular stomatitis

111

What disease is Border Disease Virus in sheep/goats similar to in cattle?

BVDV

112

What is another name for Border Disease Virus in sheep and goats?

Hairy shaker lamb

NOTE: These are like the PI calves in BVDV. Their wool will be darker and they will have an abnormal shake.

113

How do you diagnose BDV in sheep/goats?

Virus isolation

114

What are 3 ways to prevent BDV?

Test
Cull
Isolate new arrivals

115

What sort of reproductive problems do we see with BDV in small ruminants?

All the things (EED, resportion, mummies, congenital defects, PI animals)

116

How is Cache Valley dz transmitted?

Mosquitoes

117

Where do we see Cache Valley dz?

Southwest US.

118

What major congenital defect do we see from Cache Valley fever?

Arthrogryposis

NOTE: Can see herd outbreaks of this dz

119

What are 2 ways to prevent Cache Valley dz?

Vaccinate
Isolate from mosquitoes

120

Where do we see Akabane virus?

Australia, Africa, Asia

121

What is Akabane very similar to?

Cache Valley dz

122

What congenital defect does Akabane cause?

Arthrogryposis

123

What are the 2 types of Brucella that we need to worry about in small ruminants?

Brucella melitensis (goats)
Brucella ovis (sheep)

NOTE: Don't see B. melitensis in the US so much, but we do see problems with B. ovis in our sheep.

124

What do we see Brucella melitensis cause in goats?

Abortion in the ewe.

125

What do we see Brucella ovis cause in sheep?

Epididymitis in the rams

126

What is the most significan't cause of abortion in sheep in North America?

Campylobacter

127

What type of campylobacter causes large outbreaks of abortion in small ruminants?

Campylobacter fetus fetus

128

What clinical signs do we see in small ruminants?

Late term abortions and stillborns.

NOTE: Rare in goats
NOTE: Ewes don't get ill.

REMEMBER: Sheep go to camp, and goats eat clams.

129

What lesions do we see with Campylobacter in small ruminants?

Target lesions of hepatic necrosis

130

How can we prevent Campylobacter in small ruminants?

Vaccinate before breeding and booster

131

How do we handle a Campylobacter outbreak in small ruminants?

Tx with tetracyclines
Remove pregnant ewes

132

What is an important infectious cause of abortions in goats?

Chlamydophila abortus

NOTE: Also affects sheep

133

How does Chlamydia cause abortions in goats?

Placentits leads to late term abortion.

134

What lesions do we see with Chlamydia infections in small ruminants?

Necrotic placentitis of cotyledonary and intercotyledonary areas.

135

What is another name for Chlamydophila abortus?

Anzootic abortion of ewes

NOTE: This is misleading because it affects goats more.

136

How do you treat/prevent Chlamydia in small ruminants?

Tetracyclines in an outbreak
Vaccination

137

What are 4 other things that Chlamydia can produce in sheep and goats?

Pneumonia
Keratoconjunctivitis
Epididymitis
Polyarthritis

138

What is the causative agent in Q fever?

Coxiella burnetti

NOTE: Zoonotic

139

Although we don't see it very often, what would we see if Q fever is around?

See abortion outbreaks (stillbirth or late term)

NOTE: Usually subclinical

140

How do we diagnose Q fever?

See placental lesions of necrotizing placentits with necrosis of cotyledonary and intercotyledonary regions (similar to Chlamydophila).

141

How do we treat Q fever?

Tetracyclines

142

What are 2 major points of listeriosis in small ruminants?

Zoonotic
Causes a sick adult animal

143

Where does listeria come from?

Rotting hay or silage

144

How is listeriosis treated in small ruminants?

Tetracyclines

145

What are 3 ways toxoplasmosis can be transmitted to humans?

Raw goat milk
Aborted fetuses
Placentas

146

Which small ruminant species do we see toxoplasma in more?

Goats > sheep

147

If infected with toxoplasma early on, what do we see in pregnant small ruminants?

Resportion

148

If infected with toxoplasma in mid- to late gestation, what do we see in pregnant small ruminants?

Mummification or abortion

149

When might you see neurological forms of toxoplasma infections in small ruminants?

If they are immunosuppressed.

150

What is the placenta supposed to look like if you see abortions from toxoplamsa infections?

A pepperoni pizza

151

What do you want to make sure has happened before you assess a ram or buck for breeding soundness?

Puberty

152

What do you want to keep in mind when assessing breeding soundness in bucks and rams?

Past breeding history. Most owners want to change out ot a new male every 2 years to keep genetic diversity.

153

What 5 things do you want to check on your physical exam for breeding soundness of small ruminants?

Eyes (can they see the ladies?)
Legs (can they mount the ladies?)
External genitalia
Polled goats (be careful because association with intersex gene)
Body condition

154

What has a positive correlation with sperm output in small ruminants?

Scrotal circumference

155

Why is it important to make sure that rams and bucks are in good body condition BEFORE breeding season?

They are very focused and not so great and maintaining themselves.

156

What 3 things do we evaluate sperm for?

Morphology
Gross motility
Linear motility

157

How do we evaluate gross motility in the small ruminant?

Undiluted on low power

158

How do we evaluate progressive motility in the small ruminant?

Diluted with a cover slip

159

How do we do a morphology assessment on semen?

Count 100 cells and record normal vs abnormal.

160

What scrotal circumference is questionable?

161

What scrotal circumference is acceptable?

20-30

162

What scrotal circumference is exceptional?

>30

163

What are 5 causes of infertility in the male small ruminant?

Varicocele
Epididymitis in older animals
Epididymitis in younger animals
Sperm granuloma
Intersex

164

What is a varicocele?

Localized dilation of the spermatic vein.

165

What do you worry about with epidiymitis in an older small ruminant?

Brucella ovis (rare in bucks)

166

If you have epididymitis in a younger small ruminant, what do you treat it with?

Oxytetracycline

NOTE: Doesn't always work.

167

What is a sperm granuloma and what is it associated with?

Accumulation of sperm in one spot due to the tract being smaller than normal. This causes an immune reaction.

Associated with intersex.

168

Who passes the intersex condition along?

Polled bucks

NOTE: Affected animals are usually sterile.