Breeding Soundness of the Bull Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Breeding Soundness of the Bull Deck (84):
1

Are breeding soundness evaluations used more in the dairy or beef industry?

Beef

2

What are 5 components of a bull breeding sounds evaluation?

- Bull's history
- General PE
- Examine testes and measure scrotal circumference
- Detailed exam of genital tract
- Collection/analysis of semen samples

3

What are the 4 parts of a bull BSE?

- PE
- Minimum scrotal circumference based on age
- Minimum progressive motility of 30%
- Minimum of 70% morphologically normal cells

4

How many parts of the bull BSE must be passed for a bull to be considered to have satisfactory potential as a breeder?

All 4 parts!

5

What is NOT included in a routine BSE?

Test mating

6

A test mating can be scheduled if a bull has a history of what?

Infertility or failure to breed

7

What are 3 things that can be reveled with a test mating?

- Penile deviations
- Evaluation of libido
- Ability to make intromission

8

What are 4 components of the bull's history that should be taken into account?

- How long has owner had bull
- Vaccination and deworming
- Previous injuries or illness
- Bull's breeding HX

9

What are 3 pieces of information that should be recorded about the bull?

- Signalment
- Permanent ID (Tattoo, tag, brand)
- BCS

10

What are 6 acceptable forms of permanent ID for bulls?

- Metal ear tag
- Tattoo
- Hot brand
- Freeze brand
- Horn brand
- EID

11

What are 2 important aspects of a PE when evaluating a bull for breeding soundness?

- Watch him walk
- Inspect the eyes

12

What are 3 other aspects of a PE for a bull?

- Check his age (teeth)
- Look at conformation
- Palpate sheath

13

Is scissor claw a hereditary condition?

Yes

14

What is the term for when the hock and fetlock joint are straighter than they should be?

Post-legged

15

What comes after the regular PE with a BSE in bulls?

Exam of external genitalia

16

What are 2 aspects of exam the external genitalia?

- Examine prepuce and external sheath
- Palpate penis through sheath

17

What are 3 conditions to check for when visualizing the penis?

- Warts
- Hair ring
- Persistent frenulum

18

Examination of external genitalia should consist of methodical palpation of what 4 body parts?

- Testicles
- Epididymis
- Pampiniform plexus/testicular cords
- Scrotum

19

What are 3 aspects of evaluating the testicles?

- Should be same size and shape
- Feel firm like a flexed forearm
- Check temperature

20

What are 4 aspects of the epididymus to check on palpation?

- Size
- Shape
- Consistency
- Pain

21

How should the scrotum appear?

Pendulous with no skin lesions.

22

What is used to measure the circumference of the scrotum?
Where should it be measured?

- Scrotal tapes
- Around widest portion of scrotum

23

What has the closest correlation with daily sperm output in the bull?

Scrotal circumference

24

Scrotal circumference is significant for what 2 reasons?

- Larger scrotal circumference produces more sperm
- Female offspring come into estrus sooner

25

What is the minimum recommended scrotal circumference in a bull 15 months old or less?

30 cm

26

What is the minimum recommended scrotal circumference in a bull between 15 and 18 months old?

31 cm

27

What is the minimum recommended scrotal circumference in a bull between 18 and 21 months old?

32 cm

28

What is the minimum recommended scrotal circumference in a bull between 21 and 24 months old?

33 cm

29

What is the minimum recommended scrotal circumference in a bull greater than 24 months old?

34 cm

30

What type of examination allows for evaluation of internal genital structures?

Rectal examination

31

Why is it important to clear fecal material from the rectum?

Allows probe electrodes to contact rectal mucosa.

32

How does a rectal exam aid in semen collection?

Pre-stimulation for electro-ejaculation

33

What are 4 parts of the internal male genital tract that can be palpated on a rectal exam?

- Ampulla
- Seminal vesicle
- Urethralis muscle
- Prostate

34

What part of the male internal genital tract feels like a broomstick on the floor of the pelvis?
What size is it?

- Urethralis muscle
- 3 to 4 cm

35

What part of the male internal genital tract feels like a ring on a giant's finger?

Prostate

36

Which lobulated accessory sex gland that is located cranio-lateral to the prostate?

Seminal vesicles (vesicular glands)

37

What are 4 ways to describe the seminal vesicles (vesicular glands)?

- Paired
- Symmetrical
- Freely movable
- Non-painful

38

Which accessory sex gland is a thick walled tubular structure that lies along the midline between the seminal vesicles?

Ampulla

39

The ampulla are terminal dilations of what structure?

Ductus deferens

40

Where are the inguinal rings located?

Just cranial and ventrolateral to the pelvic brim.

41

The inguinal rings are slits in what muscles?

Abdominal oblique muscles

42

If the inguinal rings are greater than what size, the bull may be predisposed to what?

- 3 fingers
- Predisposed to herniation

43

What are 3 methods of semen collection that can be used with bulls?

- Electro-ejaculation
- Manual massage
- AV collection

44

What method of semen collection is most often used with bulls?

Electro-ejaculation

45

What method of semen collection can be used in bulls that are refractory to electro-ejaculation?

Manual massage

46

What method of semen collection is used almost exclusively at bull stud operations?

AV collection

47

What are 4 grades for gross motility?

- Very good
- Good
- Fair
- Poor

48

What type of sample is used to evaluate gross motility of semen?

Undiluted drop of semen on warmed side on low power.

49

What type of sample is used to evaluate progressive motility of semen?

Small amount of semen diluted with saline with a cover slip placed on it evaluated on 40X.

50

How is progressive motility of semen measured?

Appoint a % number

51

What is the minimum acceptable percentage value for progressive motility in semen?
How does this compare to other species?

- 30%
- Lowest seen in all species

52

In order to be considered progressive, the sperm must be moving in what direction?

Forward in a straight line

53

What kind of stain is used for evaluating the morphology of semen?

Eosin-nigrosin

54

Under what power should the morphology of semen be examined?

Oil 1000X

55

What are 3 classifications of morphology of semen?

- Normal
- Primary
- Secondary

56

What is the minimal acceptable percentage of normal morphology?

70%

57

What are 2 reasons for warming and cleaning a slide slide to be used for semen?

- Dries faster
- Fewer smudges

58

Why is it important to use fresh E-N stain?

Old stain can be "contaminated" and has usually become hypertonic.

59

What do you put on the slide first, the stain or the semen?

Stain first, then semen

60

How many slides should be made?

2 or 3

61

The semen slide should be stained with Diff-Quik if what condition is suspected?
What are you looking for?

- Vesiculitis
- WBCs

62

What are 3 systems that can be used to classify sperm abnormalities?

- Primary/secondary
- Major/minor
- Compensable/non-compensable

63

What type of morphology classification system denotes the origin of the defect?

Primary/secondary

64

Is a morphology defect that originates in the testis during spermatogenesis primary or secondary?

Primary

65

Which type of morphology defect is considered a "production problem," primary or secondary?

Primary

66

Which type of morphology defect usually involves head and middle piece, primary or secondary?

Primary

67

Which type of morphology defect originates in the epididymus, primary or secondary?

Secondary

68

Which type of morphology defect is considered a "transit defect," primary or secondary?

Secondary

69

Which type of morphology defects have been proven to be associated with infertility, major or minor?

Major

70

Which type of morphology defects are not associated with infertility?

Minor

71

What is a flaw with the major/minor morphology system?

A minor defect may affect 100% of a population of ejaculate.

72

What type of morphology defect is hereditary in Jerseys?

Distal mid-piece reflex

73

A morphology classification system where sperm defects are based upon the current understanding of the significance of the defect is what?

Compensable/non-compensable

74

What is a morphological defect that can be compensated for by additional normal sperm is considered what type of defect?

Compensable defect

75

What is an example of a compensable defect?

Bent tail spermatozoa

76

What is a morphological defect that will express as a decrease in fertility at the % level of its occurrence?

Non-compensable defect

77

With what type of morphological defect do the defective sperm compete directly with normal sperm to penetrate the ova and induce an acrosome reaction?

Non-compensable defect

78

Would increasing sperm numbers increase the chance of fertilization with a compensable defect?

Yes

79

Would increasing sperm numbers increase the chance of fertilization with a non-compensable defect?

No

80

What are 5 things that can increase the occurrence of abnormalities?

- Heat
- Illness
- Lameness
- Stress
- Genetics

81

Do you measure the volume of ejaculate collected from a bull when electro-ejaculation is used?
Why?

- No
- Amount collected during electro-ejaculation is not the normal volume produced string regular ejaculation.

82

What are the 3 final classifications used for semen analysis?

- Satisfactory
- Unsatisfactory
- Deferred

83

When can semen be re-tested?

60 days

84

How many times can a bull's semen be deferred before is is deemed unsatisfactory?

Once