Flashcards in Breeding Soundness of the Bull Deck (84):
Are breeding soundness evaluations used more in the dairy or beef industry?
What are 5 components of a bull breeding sounds evaluation?
- Bull's history
- General PE
- Examine testes and measure scrotal circumference
- Detailed exam of genital tract
- Collection/analysis of semen samples
What are the 4 parts of a bull BSE?
- Minimum scrotal circumference based on age
- Minimum progressive motility of 30%
- Minimum of 70% morphologically normal cells
How many parts of the bull BSE must be passed for a bull to be considered to have satisfactory potential as a breeder?
All 4 parts!
What is NOT included in a routine BSE?
A test mating can be scheduled if a bull has a history of what?
Infertility or failure to breed
What are 3 things that can be reveled with a test mating?
- Penile deviations
- Evaluation of libido
- Ability to make intromission
What are 4 components of the bull's history that should be taken into account?
- How long has owner had bull
- Vaccination and deworming
- Previous injuries or illness
- Bull's breeding HX
What are 3 pieces of information that should be recorded about the bull?
- Permanent ID (Tattoo, tag, brand)
What are 6 acceptable forms of permanent ID for bulls?
- Metal ear tag
- Hot brand
- Freeze brand
- Horn brand
What are 2 important aspects of a PE when evaluating a bull for breeding soundness?
- Watch him walk
- Inspect the eyes
What are 3 other aspects of a PE for a bull?
- Check his age (teeth)
- Look at conformation
- Palpate sheath
Is scissor claw a hereditary condition?
What is the term for when the hock and fetlock joint are straighter than they should be?
What comes after the regular PE with a BSE in bulls?
Exam of external genitalia
What are 2 aspects of exam the external genitalia?
- Examine prepuce and external sheath
- Palpate penis through sheath
What are 3 conditions to check for when visualizing the penis?
- Hair ring
- Persistent frenulum
Examination of external genitalia should consist of methodical palpation of what 4 body parts?
- Pampiniform plexus/testicular cords
What are 3 aspects of evaluating the testicles?
- Should be same size and shape
- Feel firm like a flexed forearm
- Check temperature
What are 4 aspects of the epididymus to check on palpation?
How should the scrotum appear?
Pendulous with no skin lesions.
What is used to measure the circumference of the scrotum?
Where should it be measured?
- Scrotal tapes
- Around widest portion of scrotum
What has the closest correlation with daily sperm output in the bull?
Scrotal circumference is significant for what 2 reasons?
- Larger scrotal circumference produces more sperm
- Female offspring come into estrus sooner
What is the minimum recommended scrotal circumference in a bull 15 months old or less?
What is the minimum recommended scrotal circumference in a bull between 15 and 18 months old?
What is the minimum recommended scrotal circumference in a bull between 18 and 21 months old?
What is the minimum recommended scrotal circumference in a bull between 21 and 24 months old?
What is the minimum recommended scrotal circumference in a bull greater than 24 months old?
What type of examination allows for evaluation of internal genital structures?
Why is it important to clear fecal material from the rectum?
Allows probe electrodes to contact rectal mucosa.
How does a rectal exam aid in semen collection?
Pre-stimulation for electro-ejaculation
What are 4 parts of the internal male genital tract that can be palpated on a rectal exam?
- Seminal vesicle
- Urethralis muscle
What part of the male internal genital tract feels like a broomstick on the floor of the pelvis?
What size is it?
- Urethralis muscle
- 3 to 4 cm
What part of the male internal genital tract feels like a ring on a giant's finger?
Which lobulated accessory sex gland that is located cranio-lateral to the prostate?
Seminal vesicles (vesicular glands)
What are 4 ways to describe the seminal vesicles (vesicular glands)?
- Freely movable
Which accessory sex gland is a thick walled tubular structure that lies along the midline between the seminal vesicles?
The ampulla are terminal dilations of what structure?
Where are the inguinal rings located?
Just cranial and ventrolateral to the pelvic brim.
The inguinal rings are slits in what muscles?
Abdominal oblique muscles
If the inguinal rings are greater than what size, the bull may be predisposed to what?
- 3 fingers
- Predisposed to herniation
What are 3 methods of semen collection that can be used with bulls?
- Manual massage
- AV collection
What method of semen collection is most often used with bulls?
What method of semen collection can be used in bulls that are refractory to electro-ejaculation?
What method of semen collection is used almost exclusively at bull stud operations?
What are 4 grades for gross motility?
- Very good
What type of sample is used to evaluate gross motility of semen?
Undiluted drop of semen on warmed side on low power.
What type of sample is used to evaluate progressive motility of semen?
Small amount of semen diluted with saline with a cover slip placed on it evaluated on 40X.
How is progressive motility of semen measured?
Appoint a % number
What is the minimum acceptable percentage value for progressive motility in semen?
How does this compare to other species?
- Lowest seen in all species
In order to be considered progressive, the sperm must be moving in what direction?
Forward in a straight line
What kind of stain is used for evaluating the morphology of semen?
Under what power should the morphology of semen be examined?
What are 3 classifications of morphology of semen?
What is the minimal acceptable percentage of normal morphology?
What are 2 reasons for warming and cleaning a slide slide to be used for semen?
- Dries faster
- Fewer smudges
Why is it important to use fresh E-N stain?
Old stain can be "contaminated" and has usually become hypertonic.
What do you put on the slide first, the stain or the semen?
Stain first, then semen
How many slides should be made?
2 or 3
The semen slide should be stained with Diff-Quik if what condition is suspected?
What are you looking for?
What are 3 systems that can be used to classify sperm abnormalities?
What type of morphology classification system denotes the origin of the defect?
Is a morphology defect that originates in the testis during spermatogenesis primary or secondary?
Which type of morphology defect is considered a "production problem," primary or secondary?
Which type of morphology defect usually involves head and middle piece, primary or secondary?
Which type of morphology defect originates in the epididymus, primary or secondary?
Which type of morphology defect is considered a "transit defect," primary or secondary?
Which type of morphology defects have been proven to be associated with infertility, major or minor?
Which type of morphology defects are not associated with infertility?
What is a flaw with the major/minor morphology system?
A minor defect may affect 100% of a population of ejaculate.
What type of morphology defect is hereditary in Jerseys?
Distal mid-piece reflex
A morphology classification system where sperm defects are based upon the current understanding of the significance of the defect is what?
What is a morphological defect that can be compensated for by additional normal sperm is considered what type of defect?
What is an example of a compensable defect?
Bent tail spermatozoa
What is a morphological defect that will express as a decrease in fertility at the % level of its occurrence?
With what type of morphological defect do the defective sperm compete directly with normal sperm to penetrate the ova and induce an acrosome reaction?
Would increasing sperm numbers increase the chance of fertilization with a compensable defect?
Would increasing sperm numbers increase the chance of fertilization with a non-compensable defect?
What are 5 things that can increase the occurrence of abnormalities?
Do you measure the volume of ejaculate collected from a bull when electro-ejaculation is used?
- Amount collected during electro-ejaculation is not the normal volume produced string regular ejaculation.
What are the 3 final classifications used for semen analysis?
When can semen be re-tested?