Diseases of the Bull Flashcards Preview

Theriogenology > Diseases of the Bull > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diseases of the Bull Deck (73):
1

What muscles need to be relaxed in order for an erection to occur in a bull?

Retractor muscles

2

Do bulls have a small or large corpus spongiosum?

Small

3

Do bulls have a small or large corpus cavernosum?

Large

4

What are 3 juvenile conditions of the penis and prepuce seen in bulls?

- Penile papilloma (warts)
- Penile hair rings
- Persistent frenulum

5

What is the etiology of penile papilloma (warts) in bulls?
What are 2 ways it can be introduced to bulls?

- Bovine papilloma virus
- Homosexual riding among young bulls and wounds

6

What are 3 clinical signs that can be seen with penile papilloma (warts)?

- Scant hemorrhage after coitus
- Hesitancy to extend penis or breed
- Usually single, pedunculate growth

7

What is the treatment for penile papilloma (warts) in bulls?

Surgical excision

8

What are 4 components of surgical treatment for penile papilloma (warts)?

- Towel clamp
- Tourniquet
- Local anesthetic
- 10 Fr. male dog catheter

9

What are 2 complications that can be seen with penile papilloma (warts)?

- Recurrence
- Urethral injury

10

What part of the penis was a ligament that can be clamped on to with a tool clamp to help secure it?

Dorsal portion

11

What is the etiology for penile hair rings?
How can they occur?

- Body hair accumulation on penis
- Homosexual riding among young bulls

12

What is the treatment for penile hair rings?

Remove the hair ring

13

What are 2 complications that can be seen with penile hair rings?

- Necrosis of urethra which can lead to a fistula
- Amputation of glans penis

14

What is the etiology of the persistent frenulum?

Incomplete separation of the penis and prepuce.

15

Can a penis be extended with a persistent frenulum?

Yes

16

How does a penis with a persistent frenulum deviate?

Ventral deviation

17

How do you diagnose a persistent frenulum?

Physical exam

18

How do you treat a persistent frenulum?

Surgical excision

19

What are 3 components of surgical treatment for a persistent frenulum?

- Towel clamp
- Local anesthetic
- Suture

20

Is persistent frenulum a heritable condition?

Yes

21

What is the minimal required motility for bulls?

30%

22

What are 3 conditions that can lead to preputial trauma and/or laceration?

- Excessive pendulous sheath
- Excessive preputial length
- Large preputial orifice

23

What are 3 components to diagnosing preputial trauma or lacerations?

- Swelling of sheath
- History
- Clinical signs

24

What are 3 differentials for preputial trauma or laceration?

- Hematoma
- Retropreputial abscess
- Urethral rupture

25

Which type of cattle is more prone to preputial trauma and lacerations, Bos indices or Bos taurus?

Bos indicus

26

When examining sheath conformation, the sheath should be above a line horizontal to the ground between what two body parts on the bull?

Between the carpus and tarsus.

27

What are 6 steps to how a preputial laceration can occur in a bull?

- Excess prepuce forced caudally during intromission
- Forms collar tissue
- Trapped between bull's abdomen and cow's bony pelvis
- Laceration on ventral surface occurs during ejaculatory lunge
- Lacerates longitudinal to long axis of prepuce
- Heals transversely as bull retracts penis

28

What are 2 treatment options for a preputial laceration?

- Medical
- Surgical

29

What are 3 forms of conservative therapy for preputial lacerations in bulls?

- Clean damaged tissues
- Emollient ointment
- Bandaging and slings

30

What are 3 ingredients used in an emollient ointment for the treatment of preputial lacerations?

- 2 g tetracycline powder
- 60 mL scarlet oil
- 500 g anhydrous lanolin

31

What are 3 pre-surgical therapies for preputial lacerations?

- Reduce edema
- Emollient ointment
- Prophylactic antibiotics

32

What are 3 ways to reduce edema with preputial lacerations?

- Hydrotherapy
- Pressure bandage
- Slinging prepuce with burlap material

33

What are 3 surgical options for the management of preputial lacerations?

- Resection and anastomosis (circumcision)
- Amputation of affected prepuce
- Preputial reconstruction

34

What are 4 keys to successful treatment of preputial lacerations with resection and anastomosis?

- Aseptic technique
- Hemostasis
- Avoid urine contamination
- Keep tissue happy

35

How long should bulls be sexually rested post-op after resection and anastomosis surgery for preputial lacerations?

60-120 days

36

What is the guideline for the maximum amount of prepuce that can be removed via resection and anastomosis?

Remaining prepuce should be a minimum of 1 1/2 times the length of the free portion of the penis.

37

What can be used for preputial amputation?

Plastic ring

38

What are 4 aspects of using a plastic ring for preputial amputation?

- Polyvinyl tubing placed into preputial prolapse
- Ligating sutures
- Amputate prepuce
- Remove ring in 2 weeks

39

What is the minimal require normal morphology for bulls?

70%

40

Are penile hematomas more common in Bos indices or Bos taurus?
Specifically what breed?

- Bos taurus
- Herefords

41

When are penile hematomas more common during the breeding season?

Early or late in breeding season

42

How do penile hematomas usually occur?

- Bull misses vagina on breeding thrust
- Penis hits rear of cow or cow slips or goes down under weight of bull
- Penis bends rapidly

43

How much pressure is required to rupture the tunica albuginea of the penis of a bull?

75,000 mmHg

44

Where is the rupture usually located with a penile hematoma?
What muscle inserts here?

- Ruptures at dorsal aspect of distal bend of sigmoid flexure.
- Insertion of retractor penis muscle

45

What are 2 clinical signs seen with a penile hematoma?

- Swelling in sheath immediately cranial to base of scrotum
- Usually symmetrical swelling

46

What are 3 ways to diagnose a penile hematoma?

- History
- Physical exam
- Location and size of swelling

47

What are 2 forms of treatment for a penile hematoma?

- Conservative/medical
- Surgical

48

How long should a bull be sexually rested for with a penile hematoma?

At least 60 days

49

What are 2 forms of medical treatment for a penile hematoma?

- Systemic antibiotics
- Hydrotherapy

50

What percentage of bulls return to service after a penile hematoma?

50%

51

When should surgery be performed for a penile hematoma?
If done in this time frame, what percent return to service?

- 3 to 7 days after injury
- 80%

52

Bulls treated surgically for penile hematomas should be sexually rested for how many days?

Minimum of 60 days

53

What is a suture pattern that can be used to surgically repair a penile hematoma?

Bootlace pattern

54

Where is a common location for a preputial avulsion?

Prepuce torn from connection to free portion of penis.

55

Preputial avulsions can be seen when what type of breeding tool is used?

AV injury

56

What are 3 types of penile deviations seen in bulls?

- S-shaped deviation
- Rainbow/ventral deviation
- Corkscrew or spiral deviation

57

What type of penile deviation can happen when the apical ligament is too short?

S-shaped deviation

58

What type of penile deviation can happen when the apical ligament is too long?

Rainbow/ventral deviation

59

What type of penile deviation can happen when the apical ligament cannot be maintained in a normal position?

Corkscrew or spiral deviation

60

How can penile deviations be diagnosed?

Test mating

61

What is a treatment for penile deviation?

Surgery

62

What is the most common sex gland to get infections in a bull?

Vesicular glands

63

Is vesiculitis more common in younger or older bulls?

Young bulls

64

What are 3 common bacterial causes of vesiculitis in bulls?

- B. abortus
- A. pyogenes
- H. somnus

65

What are 2 clinical signs of vesiculitis that can be detected on palpation?

- Painful
- Loss of lobulation

66

How is vesiculitis diagnosed?

Collection and stain diff-quick to look for WBCs.

67

What is a type of antibiotic that can be used to try to treat vesiculitis?

Tetracyclines

68

Is epididymitis more commonly unilateral or bilateral?

Unilateral

69

Epididymitis can often be seen with what 2 other conditions?

- Vesiculitis
- Orchitis

70

What are 3 clinical signs seen with epididymitis?

- Swollen
- Painful early in disease
- Small, hard, misshapen

71

What are 2 type of bacteria that can cause epididymitis?

- A. pyogenes
- B. abortus

72

How can epididymitis be diagnosed?

Collect a sample and use diff-quick to look for WBCs

73

What type of antibiotic can be used for epididymitis?

Tetracyclines