Flashcards in Breeding Soundness Examination of the Mare Deck (48):
What are 2 conditions that a distinct vulvar shelf can lead to in a mare?
- Ascending infection
Where should the vulvar normally be located in the mare in relation to the pelvic bone?
1/3 above and 2/3 below the pelvic bone
If the vulva has more than what degree of tilt, then a caslick operation should be performed?
More than 15 degrees of tilt
What can be used to evaluate the position of the cervix in the vagina?
What are 3 things vaginoscopy can be used to detect?
- Postion of cervix in the vagina
- Presence and nature of discharge
- Vaginal lacerations
When during the estrous cycle is the most reliable time to examine the potency of the cervix?
What are 3 general forms of examination that can be used with the cervix?
- Rectal exam
- US exam
- Digital exam
Which part of the reproductive tract in the mare is formed by abundant collagenous tissue, smooth muscle fibers and a few tubular glands?
Which organ in the mare is the most sensitive to hormonal influence?
During what part of the estrous cycle is the cervix relaxed?
What happens to the cervix in maiden mares over 8-10 years of age that have not delivered a foal?
Cervix will start to loose its functional integrity.
The best way to test the potency of the cervix is:
a) Digital examination during diestrus
b) Vaginoscopy (speculum)
c) Rectal examination
d) US exam
e) Digital examination during estrus
a) Digital examination during diestrus
What are 3 possible pathologies that can be seen with the cervix?
- Fails to relax/open during estrus
- Fails to close during diestrus
If you seen a "cartwheel pattern" on US when examining the uterus, it means the mare is in what phase of the estrous cycle?
What is causing this pattern?
- Endometrial folds
T/F: The pattern of uterine edema during estrus is a good breeding management tool.
When mares ovulate, should there be a very low or very high degree of uterine edema present?
What are 5 examples of when a uterine culture can be used as a routine diagnostic technique?
- Mares pre-breeding
- Screening mares pre-breeding
- Mares with poor reproductive histories
- Mares with signs of endometritis
What are 3 possibles signs of endometritis in a mare?
- Uterine fluid
- Excessive uterine edema
- Uterine edema with no follicular activity
When are 3 times a uterine culture can be performed?
- During estrus
- Diestrus when fluid is present
- Good uterine edema/fluid
When should cytology be down with a uterine culture?
How long should a uterine swab be rolled the uterus to maximize contact?
What should be done with the uterine swab before removing it from the reproductive tract?
Pull swab back into sheath to avoid touching the vagina on the way out.
Which diagnostic technique system allows the outer sheath to remain in the mare while the swab is taken out and the brush is inserted?
When should slides be fixed for cytology?
- As soon as possible
- Prevents cellular degeneration that may occur with time.
Endometrial cells that have cilia are also called what?
If what is found in a uterine cytology of a mare, it carries a bad prognosis?
T/F: The presence of significant cytological inflammation is necessary for uterine contamination to be present.
False - Don't need significant cytological inflammation for uterine contamination to be present.
T/F: You do not need to have both a positive cytology and culture to have reduced pregnancy levels, just one of the two.
What is the most common bacteria to cause uterine infections in mares?
Strep zooepidemicus/Beta hemolytic strep
Which tend to produce more pus/inflammation in the uterus of mares, gram negatives or gram positives?
Is bacteria considered normal flora in the uterus of the mare?
What are 5 indications for a uterine biopsy?
- Repeated embryonic death
- Repeated abortions
- Fail to respond to treatment
- Unable to DX uterine anthology with routine endometrial swabs
- Prognosis of how difficult it will be to get her pregnant or to maintain the pregnancy
What grade of uterine biopsy is considered normal?
With a Grade 1 uterine biopsy, what is the expected foaling rate?
A uterine biopsy showing mild changes is considered to be what grade?
What type of change is typically seen?
- Grade 2A
- Small amount of hypercellularity
What is the expected foaling rate with a Grade 2A uterine biopsy?
A uterine biopsy showing moderate changes is considered to be what grade?
What is the expected foaling rate with a Grade 2B uterine biopsy?
Fibrotic nests can first be seen with what grade uterine biopsy?
Severe changes can be seen with what grade uterine biopsy?
What ist eh expected foaling rate of a grade 3 uterine biopsy?
Less than 10%
Is a mare with a Grade 3 uterine biopsy sterile/infertile?
What does UTJ stand for?
What hormone is dominant during diestrus?
When are progestins seen?
When is estrone sulfate seen?
Inhibin, testosterone and progesterone can be elevated with what type of tumor?
Granulosa Theca Cell tumor