Is Brucella reportable?
Brucella requires _____ for survival
*DOES NOT DO WELL IN ENVIRONMENT
What areas of the body are Brucella most associated with?
Reticuloendothelial and genital tract
What is the common manifestation of Brucella?
Orchitis-inflammation of testicle
Brucella likes to cause ____
True/False: Brucella can cause mastitis
Brucella uses a type ___ secretion system for ____ survival
type IV secretion system
smooth colonies of Brucella are more ___ than rough colonies
What is the most common route of transmission for Brucella?
*tissue and fluid associated with abortion can also be infective
True/False: Brucella can be transmitted in utero to progeny and vererally
1. Brucella penetrates intact mucosal surfaces
2. macrophage uptake
3. intracelluar survival (type 4 secretion system)
4. localization in retiuclo-endothelial system and reproductive tract
What kind of inflammation does Brucella cause?
*A lot of macrophages in the area
Brucella Melitensis can lead to what?
What does Brucella cause in males?
enlargment of epididymis- painful scrotum
True/False: once a female has an abortion they are normally immune from Brucella
Anytime you think Brucella, think ______
What are some of the common extragenital manifestation of Brucella?
Dogs- meningoencephalitis, osteomyelitis
Cattle: hygromas (callus of the knee cap)
Horses: poll evil- not common at all
picture: hyogroma in the knee cap of a cow
What is an extragenital manifestation of Brucella in humans?
How do humans usually aquire Brucella?
handling tissue containing Brucella
ex. aborted fetuses, fluids, non pasteurized milk
*Veterinarians are at risk
What is the main species of Brucella that can infect humans?
___ animals are more susceptible to Brucella
How to control Brucella infection in a swine herd?
do not have breeding swine confined to same pen
eliminate infected boars
minimize exposure to aborted tissues
True/False: Brucella mainly effects younger individuals
*older individuals are more susceptible
What is the unique way that dogs can spread Brucella?
Do antibodies help with Brucella infections?
low levels- kill bacteria
high levels- interfere with complement
Brucella likes to live inside ____
Effective immunity to Brucella is primarily ____
What Brucella species infectes what animals?
B. abortus- Cattle
B. suis- Swine
B. Melitensis- Goats and sheep
B. canis- dogs
What is the best sample for diagnosis of Brucella?
What vaccines are available for Dogs and Swine with Brucella?
no vaccines for dogs and swine
True/False: great care should be employed when working with tissues and fluids infected with Brucella
*Be very careful
True/False: Gram stain is the best way to diagnose Brucella
Immunofluorescence is the best way
*Slow and hard to grow in agar
True/False: Brucella is hemolytic
True/False: Brucella is urease positive
Brucella ____ ring test is positive if a purple ring develops
*purple ring develops in top of cream
What is the best treatment for Brucella in livestock?
No treatment for Brucella is attempted in livestock!
*potential problems of maintaining infected animals during eradication programs
What is the best treatment for Brucella in dogs?
neutering affected animals
What are the different ways to prevent Brucella?
Immunization alone- reduces abortions but does not eradicate bacteria
Immunization followed by test and slaughter- if females are postive they are killed
Testing and removal of infected animals without immunization- depopulation of entire swine, sheep or goat population is a good way to get the bacteria under control