Flashcards in C1 - New World Beginnings 33,000 B.C. - A.D. 1783 Deck (41):
People of mixed Indian and European heritage. Spanish conquistadors converted Indian women in Mexico to Catholicism, married them, and had babies.
Spanish for "Conquerors". Spanish explorers and colonizers in 1500s. (e.g. Vasco Nunez Balboa, Ferdinand Magellan, Juan Ponce deLeon, Francisco Coronado). Driven to explore by motives such as lust for gold, lust for greater royal titles, desire to win God's favor by spreading Christianity by "pagan" Indians.
First explorer sent to New World by England. 1497. Explored NE coast of N. America.
Oldest continually inhabited European settlement in what is now US. In FL. Spanish settled this area to block the French and any challenges to their sea lanes back to Europe.
Hernando de Soto
1542. Led 600 men seeking gold. Started in FL and went West. Discovered Mississippi River. Abusive to Indians - died of fever - his men secretly disposed of his body.
Juan Ponce de Leon
1521 - Spanish explorer went to FL seeking gold. Killed by Indians.
Three sister farming
Grown @ 1000 A.D. on U.S. Atlantic coast. beans grew on trellis of cornstalks. squash covered the planting mounds to retain moisture in soil. Rich diet of veggies produced high population civilizations...Creek, Choctaw, Cherokee Indians.
Leader of Aztecs. Thought Cortes was a god, let Cortes' group approach capital. Gave them gold.
Aztec capital. 10 square miles. 300K people. Island in middle of lake with floating gardens around.
Leader of Iroquois in NE US. - 1500s A.D.
Treaty of Tordesillas
1494. Treaty between Spain and Portugal. Spain claimed most of S. and N. America. Portugal got land in Africa, Asia, Brazil.
1680. New Mexico. Pueblo Indians revolted against Spanish conquistadors. Spanish were trying to convert Indians to Catholicism/suppressing the Indians' customs. Indians revolted and destroyed every Catholic church, killed priests and many Spanish settlers.
Lived in American SW (Rio Grande valley) - 1200 B.C. Made intricate irrigation systems to water their corn. Villages had multistoried/multicolored buildings. Spanish explorers made contact with them in 1500s. Pueblo means village in Spanish.
1542 - searching for fabled "golden cities" (really adobe Pueblos) explored Arizona, NM, to KS. Discovered Grand Canyon and Bison.
Italian sailor who persuaded Spanish king/queen to give him 3 ships and a crew. Sailed West. On 10/12/1492, they found an island in Bahamas. Was looking for Asia...thought he'd found the Indies...even called native people Indians.
Lived in Great Lakes/Ohio areas. From B.C. to 1500, built civilization. Built large mounds for ceremonies.
1532. Crushed Incas of Peru. Took gold/riches for Spain. By 1600 Spain was very rich with silver.
False legend that all the Spanish Conquerors did in the New World was torture/kill Indians and steal their gold, infect them with germs. Those things did happen, but much of what they built was good - they brought the good of Spanish culture too and built great cities in Mexico and future US.
lived in present-day Mexico. Sought favor of gods by offering human sacrifices (cut hearts from living) est. 5,000 people killed to celebrate crowning one chief.
1769. Spanish missionary who founded the first mission in CA...at San Diego. 20 more missions were started. Fr. Serra's Franciscan priests worked hard to convert Indians to Catholicism.
female Indian slave - knew Mayan and the Aztec languages. Picked up by Cortes. Helped him communicate/learn about unrest in Aztec empire. She was baptized with Spanish name Dona Marina.
da Gama (Vasco)
1498 - he sailed around South Africa and reached India (hence the name "Indies" to mean all lands of the Orient)
Portuguese explorer/sailor who first rounded the southern tip of Africa (they called it "dark continent") to get to Asia. 1488.
1519. Sailed from Cuba to Mexico, picked up Malinche who helped him communicate, find out about unrest with Indians from whom Aztecs were demanding tribute/sacrifices. Got support of Indians and marched on Aztec capital.
Great Ice Age
Began 2 million years ago. Ended 10,000 years ago. 2-mile-thick ice sheets covered parts of Europe, Asia and the Americas. Covered most of Canada and the US as far south as a line from PA - OH - Dakotas - Pacific NW. Created the NA landscape we see today. Action/movement of the ice created The Great Lakes.
Fleet of Spanish ships - Spanish Navy.
zone made of ancient rock that anchors the North American continent at the NE corner. First part of North American landmass to emerge above sea level.
1300s - nurtured spirit of optimism and adventure in Europe. Printing press invented in 1450 allowed for spread of scientific knowledge. Mariner's compass allowed better sailing.
Italian who took a 20-year trip to China in 1295. Told stories of wonderful goods in Asia. Made Europeans want them. Stimulated desire to find cheaper route to China.
Incas (Peru), Mayans (Central America), Aztecs (Mexico)
created sophisticated civilizations. Advanced farming practices - grew mostly Maize (corn) to feed millions of people. No large animals (e.g. horses, oxen) to help and wheel not yet invented...still built elaborate cities and had commerce. Talented in math and astronomy.
Corn - B.C.
developed from wild grass by people (hunter/gatherers) in Mexico in 5000 B.C. Foundation for huge civilizations b/c it fed so many people. Transformed nomads into settled villages. Corn planting reached American Southwest by 1200 B.C. - molded Pueblo culture.
Different Indian civilizations
Mexico/South American civilizations much more developed cities/civilizations. Compared to those, other Indians in present U.S. were scattered/no permanent villages/not well organized...less able to defend themselves against European explorers/settlers. A few exceptions: Pueblo, Mound Builders, Anasazi, Cahokia, Iroquois.
Corn - A.D.
Use of corn built large populations between 1 A.D. and 1000 A.D.: Mound Builders (Ohio), Anasazi (Desert SW- built 600-room Pueblo in NM), Cahokia (St. Louis, MO - had 25K people). All mysteriously declined by 1300 A.D. (drought?) Iroquois (NE US) survived/thrived.
Motivation - European exploration
Goods brought back from Asia like silk, drugs, colorful fabrics, spices (esp. sugar) caused Europeans to seek easier, cheaper ways to get these.
Chain of events - European exploration
1450 better ships made by Portuguese allowed ships to sail south along Africa coast. Portuguese set up trading posts on African coast to trade gold and slaves. Then sailors went all the way around Africa, then they pushed West and discovered America.
Spain - events from 1450s - 1500.
Fighting between Muslims and Christians ended when Muslim Moors were driven out of Spain. Ferdinand and Isabella married - became King & Queen. Spain was driven to explore too. Since Portugal controlled African coast, Spain sent explorers West.
Old World (Europe) and New World (America) share:
Germs: European germs wiped out 90% of Native Americans (they had no resistance to smallpox, etc.). Whole civilizations were wiped out. Europeans brought horses/cattle/sheep and seeds to grow sugar in Caribbean. N. and S. American minerals/gold and seeds to corn and crops were shared with Europe.
Vasco Nunez Balboa
Discoverer of Pacific Ocean. 1513. Saw Pacific after going through Panama. Claimed all lands washed by the sea for his Spanish King.
1522. Sailed from Spain all the way around the world. First to sail southward around S. America.
Other European countries sent explorers to New World
Most (including Columbus) were from Spain. England sent John Cabot. France sent Giovanni da Verrazano in 1524 (Eastern seaboard). 1534, Frenchman Jacques Cartier explored St. Lawrence River.