C37 - The Cold War Begins 1945-1952 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in C37 - The Cold War Begins 1945-1952 Deck (36):
1

Benjamin Spock

Wrote childrearing books - first one in 1945. Gave parenting advice. This was seen as a sign of the times, where more people were moving, spreading families out...families looked to books like Dr. Spock's for advice that would have been given by grandparents in past years.

2

National Security Act

Congress passed in 1947 to form the US Defense Department, made the Pentagon its home, Created a new Presidential Cabinet position: Secretary of Defense and joined the 3 arms of the military: Army, Navy, Air Force. Heads of each arm were brought together as the Join Chiefs of Staff.

Also established National Security Council to advise the President

Congress also re-instituted the Draft - required military service of 19-25 year olds men.

3

iron curtain

Division of cooperation and secrecy put up by the Soviet Union which divided East "communist" Europe and West "capitalist/democratic" European countries.

4

Point Four program

Truman's plan to give $ to developing poor nations to bolster them and to avoid having them turn communist. This program started in 1950 and $ was sent to poor Latin American and African and Asian countries.

5

Fair Deal

1950. Truman pledged for a fair deal for America, calling for higher minimum wage, full employment, social security for elderly, better housing, farm support. Some of the ideas passed Congress, including the Social Security act of 1950, providing old-age insurance in elderly/retired.

6

Dean Acheson

Truman's Secretary of State who, along with Truman, was blamed for China's takeover by Communists in 1949.

7

Taft-Hartley Act

1947. Republican-controlled congress passed this law that some Democrats and labor leaders called anti-union. Said that unions had to pay for damages for some of their activities, etc. Democrat President Truman had vetoed it. Congress had enough votes to override the Veto.

8

containment

x

9

Cold War

1940s-early 1990s. Poor relations between US and Soviet Union. Not a physical war.

10

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

NATO. 1949. US agreed to join other Western European countries in an agreement to defend each other militarily if attacked by Russia.

11

Truman Doctrine

March 1947: Congress approved Truman's plan to give $ to support Greece and Turkey and other nations who were trying to resist Russian interference and takeover.

12

George F. Kennan

Diplomat and Soviet specialist who helped draft the Truman Doctrine. He felt that Russia was relentlessly expansionary (continually wanting to take over more influence and land)

13

Douglas MacArthur

US Military general who was in charge of the rebuilding of Japan. He pushed through a US drafted Japanese Constitution and helped to ensure that Japan would become a democratic/capitalist society.

14

Inchon landing

September 1950, General McArthur planned a daring amphibious (from the sea) landing behind enemy lines on the Korean Peninsula.

This worked. Within 2 weeks, the North Koreans had scrambled back to the 38th parallel.

15

white flight

x

16

House Committee on Un-American Activities

Formed in 1938. Richard Nixon was a member in 1948. Nixon was a ambitions "Red catcher". The committee would force US citizens to testify before the committee if they were suspected of communist-sympathizing activities.

17

McCarran Act

1950: Vetoed by Truman but still passed by Congress. Said the President could detain people who were "suspicious" (communist sympathizers).

18

Harry S. Truman

VP to President in 1945 after FDR's death.

19

Thomas Dewey

1948 Republican Presidential candidate. Lost to Truman as he ran for his 2nd term.

20

J. Strom Thurmond

Democrats were split in 1948 election. Some southern democrats split and nominated Thurmond as their candidate.

21

Marshall Plan (George C. Marshall)

Truman's Secy. of State. June, 1947, his plan said that US would give $ to Western European countries who would cooperate on economic reforms in their countries. This was a way to avoid having communist agitators in those countries cause revolutions from the inside, due to economic problems. This was a first step in forming the EC (European Community).

22

Julius and Ethel Rosenberg

Convicted in 1951 and electrocuted in 1953, these US citizens were accused of passing secrets about the development of the Atomic Bomb to Russia.

Their execution began to sour some US citizens on the "red-hunt" - arresting citizens thought to be communist sympathizers.

23

Yalta Conference

February 1945: Churchill, Stalin, FDR meeting. Decisions re: post-wwII Europe: Poland, Romania, and Bulgaria would have free elections. plans made to start the United Nations. Stalin later broke his promises related to Poland, etc.

24

Henry Wallace

Ran in 1948 election for Progressive Party.

25

NSC-68

Truman's National Security Council recommendation. Said that US should build its military/quadruple defense spending.

26

thirty-eighth parallel

When Japan collapsed in 1945, Russia accepted Japanese surrender North of the 38th Parallel on the Korean Peninsula, US south of the 38th parallel. Both Russia and US said they wanted reunification, but each helped to set up rival governments. In 1 949, both US and Russia withdrew from Korea, but it was left unstable.

27

Richard M. Nixon

1948, member of the House Committee on Un American Activities. brought people suspected of communist sympathizing in front of the committee to testify.

28

Nuremberg trials

War crimes trial in 1945 where 22 Nazis were tried for war crimes. Many were sentenced to death.

29

Berlin airlift

US sent airplanes into Berlin (which required crossing Russia-controlled part of Germany) to get needed supplies to people in Berlin.

30

United Nations

Formed during Yalta Conference and officially opened in April, 1945 just days after FDR died. International group made up of many world Nations, with the Big 5 powers having Veto power: US, USSR (Russia), France, China and Britain. Permanent home of UN is in New York. Early accomplishments: helped preserve peace in Iran and other trouble spots, formed UN Educational Scientific Cultural Organization; FAO Food Agriultural Organization and WHO World Health Organization.

31

Sunbelt

US States forming strip from east to west of southern states with warmer climates that many people post WWII moved to for jobs, weather, etc.

32

Babyboom

Time after WWII in US where many babies were born due to servicemen returning home and prosperous times. The economy continued to boom from 1950-1970.

33

Joseph Stalin

Russian/Soviet leader during and after WWII

34

Greece

In 1947, Truman Doctrine approved $ to boost Greece and keep it from turning to communism.

35

Iran

x

36

Israel

Born on May 14, 1948 as a Jewish state and place for many Holocaust survivors to go. Truman officially recognized Israel as a state on that day. This angered Middle Eastern Arab nations, who wanted the land to remain in Arab/Palestine hands.

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