Flashcards in C10 - Launching the new ship of state 1789-1800 Deck (39):
Virginia and Kentucky resolutions
Virginia (James Madison) and Kentucky (Thomas Jefferson) both passed resolutions to ignore the Federal Alien and Sedition Acts ("nullification"). No other states agreed to go along with this.
3 french go-betweens who tried to get John Marshall and 2 others to pay bribes to talk to French Foreign Minister Tallyrand.
Marshall refused and negotiations broke down.
Alexander Hamilton's idea that the federal government would assume the debts of the states.
Leader in VA who made the deal (and got the votes from his fellow Virginians) with Alexander Hamilton re: "assumption".
Became leader of the Jeffersonian Democratic Republicans - believed that the best government was one that governed the least. Most concerned with the poorer masses of people. Not aristocratic like the Federalists.
Washington, Hamilton and Adams were all federalists. They believed in a strong, central government. Favored the wealthy with protections against the "mobs" of masses of poorer people.
They felt this was the best way to hold together the new United States.
10th Amendment to the Constitution: says that rights that were not specifically granted to the Federal Government in the Constitution would be rights of the States or of the People.
heads of departments of the federal government that work under the President. eg. Secretary of State.
Battle of Fallen Timbers
1794. US General Anthony Wayne won a battle against Miami Indians.
First Secretary of War, reporting to President George Washington
Taxes on goods traded with foreign countries.
Alexander Hamilton's money policy depended on tariffs to pay off the national debt.
A Jeffersonian Congressman who was famous for having spit in the face of a Federalist. He was sentenced to 4 months in Jail under the Sedition Act for speaking out against President Adams.
First Secretary of the Treasury, reporting to President Washington.
A financial wizard.
Had to shape fiscal policies of the Government to solve some of the money problems under the Articles of Confederation. His plan would favor wealthier groups who would then lend support to the government, and prosperity would trickle down to all people (the masses).
Believed in "funding at par": federal government would pay off all of its debts and the states' debts accumulated during the war at face value plus interest. He had to bargain to make this happen. In 1790, he made a deal with Virginia (VA did not generally agree with his idea of "assumption" of the states' debts), so he made a deal that if they agreed with assumption, the nation's new capital, Washington DC, would be located in Virginia.
Named "Father of the National Debt" because his policies created a $75 million national debt. His idea was that this debt would make America more united...with all states having a stake in paying off the debt together. His economic plan called for money to be raised through "tariffs" (money charged on goods traded in the US). This called for vigorous trading with other countries in order to raise money this way.
One goal of Hamilton was to create a sound "credit rating" for the US, which would mean that other countries would lend money to the US when needed because they could trust it would be paid back.
Bank of the United States
Created by Congress in 1791 after vigorous debate: Alexander Hamilton (in favor of creating the bank) vs. Thomas Jefferson.
This was a bank owned by the Federal Government. Purpose: to regulate money policy.
Judiciary Act of 1789
The first Congress passed this act to form the first federal courts, organized the Supreme Court, with district and circuit courts and formed the office of the Attorney General.
Said that just because certain specific rights were spelled out in the Bill of Rights, that doesn't mean that other rights do not still reside with the People.
French foreign minister that John Adams' envoys (diplomats) tried to meet with in Paris. They were approached by 3 people (X, Y, Z) asking the Americans to pay a bribe just to talk to Tallyrand.
Idea that the Federal government had entered into a compact with the states and drew its power from the states. The states were the final authority as to whether the federal government had overstepped its powers.
implied powers/expressed powers
Led by Thomas Jefferson. Many from the South. Fought for rights of the common man, poor planters from the South, etc. They tended to disagree with the Hamiltonian Federalists.
Representative of France who came to the US. Tried to side with Jeffersonians who support the French-US alliance and go over the head of George Washington. Wanted to invade Spanish Florida and Louisiana and British Canada. Even his backers became alarmed.
He was asked to leave the US.
1791: Congress passed Hamilton's tax on whiskey to raise money for the national/federal government.
Bill of Rights
Pushed for by anti federalists who feared that individual rights would not be protected under the Constitution.
Drafted by James Madison and skillfully moved through Congress.
Adopted by the states in 1791, the Bill of Rights consists of the first 10 amendments to the Constitution.
Freedom of speech, religion and the press. Right to keep and bear arms. right to trial by jury. Right to assemble and petition the government. Prohibits cruel and unusual punishment and prohibits unfair seizure of property by the government.
One of the most seasoned diplomats during that time. He co-wrote the Federalist papers with James Madison.
Became first chief justice of the Supreme Court.
Sent to London in 1794 to make a peace deal with Britain to keep US out of war.
American General who defeated the Miami Indians in 1794.
Alien and Sedition Acts
1798: Acts put in place that put limits on negative speech about a President. Seemed to be unconstitutional, as Free Speech was guaranteed in the Constitution.
1796: George Washington wrote this address. It was published in newspapers, but never given as a speech.
Washington was tired after partisan battles of his 2nd term.
His choice to retire contributed to the idea of a two-term system for Presidents.
1794: Rural PA. Farmers rose up in rebellion because of Hamilton's excise tax on Whiskey. It was making their economic lives difficult.
Convention of 1800
John Adams tried one more time - sent a delegation to Paris after Tallyrand promised they would be properly greeted this time.
This agreement kept the US out of war, also a goal of John Adams, understanding that the US was still relatively new and weak and needed to be kept out of war.
Made the agreement with France's Napolean Bonaparte.
John Jay's treaty made in Britain in 1794. In trying to stay out of the war, he gave many things up to the British government. This angered Jeffersonian democratic republicans.
The treaty called for US to pay debts still owed to British merchants from before the Revolutionary war. This would be more costly to the south than the north. Many southerners were Jeffersonians.
France also hated this treaty. They feared a US/Britain alliance. France seized American merchant ships, but John Adams wanted to keep US out of war. He sent a diplomatic mission to try to talk things out - sent John Marshall (future chief justice) as one diplomat.
funding at par
Alexander Hamilton's idea that the US Government would pay off all debts at face value plus interest.
The idea was that this would enhance US credibility when it came to money issues and borrowing/credit.
2nd President of US. A Federalist who ran in a bitter campaign against Thomas Jefferson in 1796. He narrowly beat Jefferson. Jefferson became Vice President.
Adams was aristocratic and stuffy - not well liked by the masses.
Alexander Hamilton hated Adams and quit the Treasury in 1795 before Adams took office.
Started in 1789 and continued for 20+ years, involving other countries. King Louis XVI was beheaded. Some more Federalist-minded Americans started to worry more about "mobs" getting out of control in the US like they were in France.
Some Jeffersonian-minded anti-federalists felt the bloodshed was a small price to pay for more human freedom/democracy.
Some Jeffersonian democratic-republicans favored entering the war, fighting on France's side against Britain. Washington did not think this was a good idea: issued Neutrality Proclamation of 1793.
Treaty of Greenville
8/1795: Treaty between US and Miami Indians. Indians were paid to give up large amounts of land in Indiana and Ohio.
Strict construction was favored by Thomas Jefferson: idea that the Constitution should be interpreted literally or strictly (meaning only the power actually stated in the Constitution could be claimed by the Federal government. This is the argument Jefferson used to oppose forming a Bank of the United States that was favored by Alexander Hamilton.
Alexander Hamilton argued on the side of loose (or broad) construction: believing that what the Constitution did not specifically forbid, it permitted in terms of power to be taken by the federal government. This is how he argued in favor of a Bank of the United States.
1795: Treaty between US and Spain. Granted Americans almost all of their demands - free navigation of the Mississippi River and land north of Florida.
A states refusal to accept a Federal law. This happened when Kentucky decided to ignore the Federal Alien and Sedition Acts.
1793: Washington said the US was neutral in the war between Britain and France. This angered some, especially Jeffersonians, but it kept US out of war, which was Washington's goal.