C31 - The War to End War - 1917 - 1918 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in C31 - The War to End War - 1917 - 1918 Deck (32):
1

"normalcy"

During the election of 1920, voters were looking for "normalcy". They were tired of the Wilson days that included his great idealism, do-goodism, and his calls for moral self sacrifice.

2

Eighteenth Amendment

1919. Prohibition. Prohibited all alcoholic drinks. Driven by the need to preserve ingredients for food (not for making beer) in order to feed soldiers overseas.

Also, many beer brewers were German. At the time, Germans were not trusted.

Also, many women had been fighting for years for prohibition - they felt it led to social ills (men drinking too much caused problems for society).

3

Fourteen Points

January, 1918: Wilson delivered his Fourteen Points Address to Congress. Shared his idealistic aims/goals of the US in entering the war.

4

Treaty of Versailles

June 1919, after much disagreement the treaty was finished. Wilson's 14 points were not all there. The Germans were angry, as they had surrendered under the assumption that Wilson's 14 points would be part of the final agreement.

Wilson was also disappointed with the agreement.

Many groups in America were critical of the agreement and the League of Nations that it created: Isolationists did not agree with the US becoming so entangled in world affairs. German Americans and Italian Americans thought it was too harsh toward their native countries. Many "Hun haters" in America (people who distrusted German immigrants) thought it wasn't harsh enough on Germany.

The Treaty ultimately failed - Congress could not get enough votes. The World was disappointed with the US. Adolf Hitler of Germany, who was rising in power used this as a rallying cry.

5

Zimmermann note

1917: Note sent from Germany to Mexico, trying to get Mexico's help in fighting the US.

6

Marshal Foch

French military leader who was a General of the Allied Army, fighting against the Germans in France.

7

collective security

Agreement where countries who are part of the agreement will help with security of another member country is attacked.

Wilson tried to make this part of his League of Nations.

8

conscription

The Draft. Congress passed in 1917, forcing all men between 18-45 to Register for the Draft or become soldiers who would fight overseas.

There were many critics of forced military service, but Wilson saw it as a necessity to get a large Army to Europe quickly before the Allies fell.

9

Food Administration

Led by Herbert Hoover. The goal was to make sure there was enough food to feed soldiers and allies who were fighting overseas, as well as US citizens at home.

10

James M. Cox

Democratic candidate in election of 1920. His VP running mate was Franklin D. Roosevelt.

11

War Industries Board

Formed in 1918, but only lasted a few months until the war ended.

Goal was to form a cooperative effort with industries to get needed supplies for the war.

12

irreconcilables

Group of Republican Senators who, in 1919 while Wilson was part of a group working out a peace treaty, were back at home stirring up opposition to Wilson's League of Nation's idea.

13

Bernard Baruch

Appointed by Wilson to head the War Industries Board.

14

Nineteenth Amendment

1920: Women suffrage. Women given the right to vote.

15

Industrial Workers of the World

Radical group whose speech frightened many US citizens during WWI. Their leader and some members were convicted and sentenced to prison.

16

Henry Cabot Lodge

Republican Senator from MA and head of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations in 1918, many thought he should have been part of the peace delegation from the US to go to the Paris Conference.

Wilson didn't take him - they were bitter rivals.

17

Eugene V. Debs

Leader of Socialist Party who was convicted under the Espionage Act of 1918 and sentenced to 10 years in prison.

He was later pardoned by President Harding in 1921.

18

Espionage and Sedition acts

Passed in 1917 & 1918, these laws passed by Congress reflected fears about German Americans and anti-war Americans. The Socialists and Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) members were prosecuted under these laws. Socialist leader Eugene V. Debs was convicted under the Espionage Act of 1918 and sentenced to 10 years in prison. IWW leader William D. ("Big Bill")Haywood and 99 of his associates were also convicted.

Critics of these laws said they were breaking the 1st Amendment, guaranteeing free speech. The Supreme Court ruled in 1919, though, that the laws were legal because freedom of speech could be revoked if the speech posed a clear and present danger to the nation.

Later, most people saw these laws as an ugly chapter in US history. Future Presidents pardoned almost all people who were convicted under these laws.

19

Committee on Public Information

Set up by President Wilson to communicate his goals in entering WW1.

20

doughboys

Name given to American men who were drafted and sent overseas to fight in WW1.

Many received little training and could barely use a rifle or bayonet.

21

League of Nations

Wilson's idea that he was to push for at the Paris Conference. The League of Nations would be like a world Parliament.

22

Big Four

In 1919, the Paris Conference to discuss the end of WW1, consisted of 4 leaders: President Wilson of the US, Prime Minister David Lloyd George of Britain, Premier Georges Clemenceau of France, and Italian PM Vittorio Orlando.

23

Bolsheviks

Communists who took over Russia in 1917 and pulled out of the War...calling it a Capitalistic War.

24

George Creel

First leader of the Committee on Public Information. Creel was a journalist who was outspoken. His goal was to communicate and sell the goals of the US in entering the war. He had to sell it to US citizens and to the world. He used posters, pamphlets and booklets, songs, and many men ("four minute men") - gave speeches about the war.

Pamphlets were spread around the world, detailing Wilson's goals.

Creel and his followers succeeded in arousing passion and volunteers to support the war, but may have oversold Wilson's ability to deliver on all of his ideals.

25

Warren G. Harding

Republican candidate in election of 1920. His VP running mate was Calvin Coolidge.

Won the election.

26

Herbert Hoover

Head of the Food Administration during WW1. He used propaganda and advertising to get people to volunteer to help in the effort to have enough food for US citizens plus soldiers and allied soldiers overseas. Asked all patriotic Americans to do their part.

27

George Clemenceau

French Prime Minister who was one of the Big 4 at the Paris Conference in 1/1919.

28

Lloyd George

British leader during WW1.

29

William Borah

Republican senator who led a dozen or so militant isolationist senators who strongly opposed Wilson's League of Nations idea.

30

Pueblo, Colorado

Wilson began a presidential tour in September 1919 to try to sell his League of Nations idea so that Congress would be forced to vote in favor of the Treaty of Versailles.

He was greeted cooly in some states, but warmly in Colorado. During his speech there he pleaded his case emotionally.

His doctors had warned him against taking this trip - he was in frail health and the stress of the war and peace conference were affecting his health. He collapsed that night in CO from physical and emotional exhaustion. He was taken back to Washington, where days later, he had a stroke.

31

Wilson declares War - US enters WW1

April 2, 1917, President Wilson went before Congress and asked for declaration of war.

He was hesitant for years to join the war in Europe (so were many Americans). US tried for years to remain neutral, but War was declared after several aggressive acts by Germany, including German submarines sinking American merchant (trade) ships.

Wilson called it the "war to end war". Said the US was altruistic and did not have selfish or territory gaining aims - the US was just interested in making the world safe for democracy to flourish.

32

WW1 ended

The Germans surrendered at 11:00 on 11/11/1918.

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