C18 - Renewing the sectional struggle 1848-1854 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in C18 - Renewing the sectional struggle 1848-1854 Deck (31):
1

John C. Calhoun

Called the "Great nullifier". Spoke in favor of the South. Made impassioned plea to leave slavery alone, return runaway slaves and give the South its rights as a minority. Had an idea to elect 2 Presidents, one from the North and one from the South to restore the political balance, This would have been unworkable.

He died in 1850 before the debate was over.

2

Compromise of 1850

Laws passed in reaction to Southerners who pushed for Fugitive Slave laws.

Caused a decade of delay before the Civil War, which actually allowed the North to grow in population and strength and to gain a moral high-ground related to slavery. This "delay" in the fighting of the Civil War might have given the north the edge, causing eventual victory in the war.

3

"personal liberty laws"

Passed by some states, making their jails off-limits to federal officials. This meant that people prosecuted under fugitive slave laws could not be jailed in these states' jails.

4

Clayton-Bulwer Treaty

1850. Treaty between US and Britain to avoid war over both nations' interest in Nicaragua in S. America.

Agreement that neither country would control any future canal that would be dug in this area of S. America.

A canal would be very prosperous here because ships would be able to get from Atlantic to Pacific Ocean without sailing around the southern tip of S. America.

In future years the Panama Canal was created (south of this proposed spot in Nicaragua).

5

"conscience" Whigs

people who condemned slavery on moral grounds.

6

Underground Railroad

Way that slaves escaped to the North and finally to Canada. A network of "stations" (homes of anti-slavery people) housed runaway slaves (called Passengers).

7

Ostend Manifesto

Written in advance of a meeting at Ostend, Belgium between European powers and US envoys.

The Manifesto said that the US would buy Cuba from Spain. If Spain would not sell, the US would take it by force.

The secret Manifesto leaked out. People in the North were furious because Cuba would have been added as a slave state.

President Pierce had to drop his ambition of taking Cuba.

8

Henry Clay

Henry Clay might have seemed the logical choice as the Whig candidate for 1848 election, but he had made too many enemies. Zachary Taylor got the nomination of the Whigs instead.

9

Lewis Cass

Democratic candidate in 1848 election. Ran b/c President Polk was exhausted and announced he would not run for a 2nd term. Cass believed in Popular Sovereignty related to slavery.

10

Kansas-Nebraska Act

1854. Idea of and pushed through Congress by Stephen A. Douglas. Douglas's goal was to encourage expansion Westward. Westward expansion had been slowed down by the different goals of the North and the South...South wanted more slave states and North wanted more free states. Neither side wanted the other to gain another state on their side because that would throw off the balance. In 1854, there were equal numbers of both slave/free states, which meant equal numbers of senators from both, which meant that neither side had more power.

Douglas's idea was that Nebraska territory would be split into states of Kansas and Nebraska. Popular sovereignty (vote by the people in the states) would decide whether these states would allow slavery. Everyone assumed that Kansas would become a slave state and Nebraska a free state.

He aggressively pushed it through Congress and it became law. 2 sides so violently disagreed that some members of congress carried guns for protection.

This Kansas Nebraska Act was at odds with the 1820 law, the Missouri Compromise, which outlawed slavery in that part of the US.

After passage of this act, the North completely stopped enforcing the Fugutive Slave Act too.

Douglas cared less about slavery than he did about coming up with a scheme to allow for Westward expansion. Many people in the North who were in his party strongly disagreed with him and his lack of concern for the Missouri Compromise.

This law may have helped to start the Civil War, a few years later.

11

Daniel Webster

Gave famous 7th of march speech. 1850

Believed slavery was evil, but disunion (breaking up the Union/the US) was worse.

12

Seventh of March Speech

1850. Speech given by Daniel Webster, considered one of his finest. Helped turn the tide in the North to one of compromise on the slavery issue.

13

Harriett Tubman

illiterate. A runaway slave who helped run the "Underground Railroad". She helped 300 slaves escape, including her aging parents.

14

Free Soil party

3rd party that formed in advance of 1848 election because neither Whigs or Democrats took a position on slavery. Free Soil party was anti-slavery. They also were in favor of federal funds being used for internal improvements and to give land to settlers for free.

Slogan: "free soil, free speech, free labor and free men". They believed free land had to be given to white settlers who moved west in order to preserve America as the land of opportunity.

15

William H. Seward

Young senator from NY who was a strong antislaveryite. Did not believe in any compromise in 1850

16

Zachary Taylor

Whig party candidate in 1848 election. did not share a position on slavery. Known for his leadership in the Battle of Buena Vista, but had never been a politician before.

From the South. Born in VA. owned slaves.

17

Winfield Scott

Whig candidate in the 1852 Presidential election.

Accomplished military general.

Lost the election to Franklin Pierce

18

Stephen A. Douglas

Democrat Senator from IL. Came up with the idea of the Kansas-Nebraska act in 1854. Douglas's goal was to encourage expansion Westward. Westward expansion had been slowed down by the different goals of the North and the South...South wanted more slave states and North wanted more free states. Neither side wanted the other to gain another state on their side because that would throw off the balance. In 1854, there were equal numbers of both slave/free states, which meant equal numbers of senators from both, which meant that neither side had more power.

Douglas's idea was that Nebraska territory would be split into states of Kansas and Nebraska. Popular sovereignty (vote by the people in the states) would decide whether these states would allow slavery. Everyone assumed that Kansas would become a slave state and Nebraska a free state.

He aggressively pushed it through Congress and it became law.

This Kansas Nebraska Act was at odds with the 1820 law, the Missouri Compromise, which outlawed slavery in that part of the US.

Douglas cared less about slavery than he did about coming up with a scheme to allow for Westward expansion. Many people in the North who were in his party strongly disagreed with him and his lack of concern for the Missouri Compromise.

19

"higher law"

William Seward used this phrase, arguing that there was an even more important law than the Constitution, a higher law (a moral law), related to right and wrong re: slavery.

20

Martin Van Buren

Former president who ran as the Free Soil party's candidate.

21

Matthew C. Perry

Commander of a warship that went to Japan in 1854 and signed an important treaty, opening trade between Japan and the US.

22

Millard Fillmore

Became President in 1850 after President Taylor died. Signed the Compromise of 1850, which his predecessor Taylor probably would not have signed.

23

Franklin Pierce

Democratic candidate in 1852 election. He became President.

His cabinet contained aggressive southerners, including Jefferson Davis as Secretary of War.

24

James Gadsden

A railroad man from SC, he was appointed by Secretary of War Jefferson Davis as minister to Mexico.

He arranged for US to purchase land (New Mexico) from Mexico so that a Southern Railroad could be built to run from the East Coast to the new lands now owned by the US on the Pacific Coast (California and Oregon). The railroad was needed in order to keep this land part of the US.

25

"fire eaters"

Southern politicians/orators who were calling for secession from the Union (separating from the US/forming their own country); over the slavery issue.

26

popular sovereignty

Doctrine or belief that people of a territory should determine the status of slavery in their territory or state. Disagreed with any law of the federal government to outlaw slavery. opposite of anti-slaveryites or abolitionists.

27

Fugitive Slave Law

Laws that made it illegal to assist runaway slaves.

1850

Called the bloodhound bill.

Made it illegal for a fleeing slave to testify on their own behalf. Denied jury trials. Some whites feared this started a dangerous precedent.

Big fines for anyone who helped a fleeing slaves.

These laws turned some people who weren't really strongly against slavery into fierce antislaveryites.

Called the "man stealing law"

This law turned out to have been a mistake by the South...just turned more Northerners into anti-slaveryites.

led to the end of the Whig party, ,which couldn't stay together due to Whigs in the North opposing strict enforcement of this law and Whigs in the South strongly insisting on enforcement of this law.

28

California Gold Rush

1848 - 1856. Discovery of gold in California led many people to rush to California. Some were criminals...it became a lawless place. This caused law-abiding Californians to realize they needed the structure of a government. They drafted a constitution that excluded slavery and petitioned the Federal US govt. to make it a state.

Southern politicians were violently against making the Golden State a state. Adding CA as a non-slave state would tip the balance, making more slave states than non-slave states. Southern politicians wanted to keep the balance in the Senate...and equal number of senators from slave and non-slave states.

29

Whig Party

Very important contributions to the preservation of the US (keeping it united).

Henry Clay and Daniel Webster were both Whigs and great statesmen. Both died during the 1852 campaign.

Whig party died out after the 1852 election. The Fugitive Slave Law was one big reason.

When the Whig party died out, the US political system sent from a 2-party NATIONAL party system (members of a particular political party came from all parts of the US) to a SECTIONAL party system (split along geographic lines - north vs. south).

30

America - a Pacific power

Became a Pacific power after acquiring CA and Oregon, both of which faced Asia. Prospects of easier trade with Asia now seemed possible.

31

Effect of Kansas-Nebraska act on the Democratic Party

Shattered the Democratic Party. There was almost no more support for the Democrats from the North. Most Northern Democrats joined the new Republican Party.

Southerners were almost all Democrats.

The effect: America's 2-party system went from a National system (with supporters in all states) to a purely sectional system (Republicans in the North and Democrats in the South). This led to almost no ability for the 2 sides to compromise. Which led partly to the Civil War (no compromise meant settling differences by fighting).

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