Flashcards in C6 - The Duel for North America 1608-1763 Deck (31):
Enemies. S. de Champlain was friendly with the Huron and joined a fight against the Iroquois.
The Iroquois never forgot...hated the French after that and fought on side of British/against French in later years.
Iroquois ravaged French settlements and kept them from exploring further south than Quebec.
French colonists in what is now Nova Scotia (in Canada). When land was given to Britain after the war (Treaty of Utrecht 1713), British renamed Acadia to Nova Scotia.
British commander in 1759 Battle of Quebec.
He was small/sickly, but very good strategically and he led the British to win this important battle (though he himself died in the battle).
This battle led to Treaty of Paris in 1763 which pushed the French off of the North American continent.
French and Indian War (7 Year War)
Touched off by George Washington fighting the french in the Ohio Valley in 1754.
First of the colonial wars to have started in America (previous ones had started in Europe and spilled over to America).
7 Years War was fought in America, Europe, West Indies, Phillippines, Africa...truly a world war.
In Europe it was Britain and Prussia (Germany) vs. France, Spain, Austria and Russia. Biggest fight was in Germany when Frederick the Great stopped French, Austrian, Russian armies.
The French focused so much attention in Europe that it didn't put an adequate force to fight in America.
Samuel de Champlain
French explorer. Explored in Quebec Canada (1608 - same year as Jamestown founded by British).
Called Father of New France
French explorer - Goal to stop British settlers from moving into Ohio Valley. Founded city of Detroit MI in 1701.
Protestants in France who were fighting Roman Catholics in France. Many died fighting.
1754: British government held the first inter-colonial (reps from multiple colonies) meeting. reps from 7 of 13 colonies attended. Goal: to join forces and defend themselves against the French. Also to keep the Iroquois Indians on the British side.
Ben Franklin was a leader in these meetings. The Congress adopted a plan, but individual colonies and the London/British government did not like the plan.
British statesman. In 1758 British government put him in charge of the French/Indian/7 years war. He hired young, strong commanders and came up with better strategies for fighting the war. They had victoriesin Quebec
1763; Ottawa Indian chief led an uprising in Detroit. Killed thousands of British colonists. British retaliated brutally, deliberately infecting the Indians with smallpox by distributing infected blankets.
War of Spanish Succession
Called Queen Anne's War in America. 1702-1713. (See Treaty of Utrecht note card)
Robert de La Salle
French explorer. 1682: Floated down Mississippi River to Gulf of Mexico to stop Spanish penetration. Named the city Louisiana in honor of French King Louis X!V.
1687 he went back to start a colony there, but was murdered.
1755: French Acadians were forced to leave Acadia (called Nova Scotia by the British who had just taken over this French settlement in 1713).
They were scattered as far south at Louisiana and are not called Cajuns. there are 1 million of them now.
Edict of Nantes
1598: Issued by French King, granted toleration to French Protestants, ending fighting in France between Roman Catholics and Protestant Huguenots.
French settlements/colonies in Canada
Proclamation of 1763
Because of the uprising led by Indian chief Pontiac, British government saw a need to improve relations with the Indians and defend the Western frontier.
They made it against the law for colonists to settle/move west of the Appalachians.
Colonists were outraged and moved west anyway.
Treaty of Utrecht
Ended Queen Anne's War (called War of Spanish Succession in Europe) (1702-1713). War between Britain and France, but fought between British Colonists and French fur traders in North America. Indians joined both sides.
British won. Treaty gave Britain French-populated Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and Hudson Bay (in Canada)
French fort in Ohio River valley (later became Pittsburgh PA).
In 1754, George Washington was sent to fight for control of this land.
Sent by VA governor in 1754 to fight for land being claimed by French. with 150 VA soldiers. He was 21 at the time. They killed the French commander.
But the French sent in reinforcements and eventually won the battle in 1754. George Washington marched away with his men.
Leader at Albany Congress. Also printed famous cartoon "Join or Die" showing parts of a snake that were all separated. Each snake part was one colony. Message: the colonies had to join together/cooperate if they wanted to defend themselves against the French.
Plains of Abraham
Battlefield in Quebec where James Wolfe (British commander) helped his men win the battle with the French here.
1718: Planted by the French. Goal to stop Spanish penetration from the Gulf of Mexico.
War of Austrian Succession
1744-1748. Called King George's War in America. British/New England colonists, with British ships invaded & captured Cape Breton Island which controlled entrance to the St. Lawrence Seaway.
Eventually this land was given back to the French in the peace treaty of 1748.
Officer sent from Britain in 1755 to lead forces in the French & Indian (7 years) War. He was stubborn and a bad leader. Made strategic mistakes, and his force was beat badly by the Indians fighting for the French. Braddock was killed and George Washington was shot at.
He knew how to lead a professional army, but not one with colonists as militiamen who fought differently.
Left George Washington and a small force to try to defend the land.
French/Indians were stronger after this and started attacking British colonists.
3 Old World nations: Britain, France, Spain.
Fought for domination in the old world and in North America too.
Religions in new world: Canada vs. 13 British colonies
Canada (New France) = Catholic (French king didn't allow Protestant Huguenots from France to settle in the new world.
13 British Colonies - mostly Protestant
Beaver furs = high demand in Europe. French fur-trappers were all over North America hunting beaver. Called "coureurs de bois" runners of the woods". Drinkers, free spenders, wild.
They gave names to places in North America: Baton Rouge (red stick), Terre Haute (high land) Des Moines (some monks), Grand Teton.
Recruited Indians to help with Beaver hunting. Destroyed Beaver population in some areas.
Jesuits - French Catholic missionaries
Tried to save Indians from the French fur-traders. Tried to convert them to Catholicism.
War of Jenkin's Ear
1739: Britain vs. Spain. Spanish captain cut off ear of British captain Jenkins. Sparked this war. This small-scale war soon merged with the large-scale War of Austrian Succession in Europe.
Main area of the country where British and French fought each other for control of the land. French wanted to set up outposts for fur trading and grab the land.
British settlers knew their population was growing and would keep pushing Westward. They also wanted this land.