C21 - The Furnace of Civil War: 1861-1865 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in C21 - The Furnace of Civil War: 1861-1865 Deck (24):

William T. Sherman

Union general in charge of taking Georgia and disrupting supply routes that brought food and supplies to the Confederate soldiers.

While doing this, they were ruthless in their attacks on Confederate soldiers' homes...ruining everything in their path.


Salmon P. Chase

Lincoln's Secretary of Treasury. He became a political problem for Lincoln in the election of 1864 as infighting within his party, the Republican Party, threatened Lincoln's reelection.


Emancipation Proclamation

1863: Declared "forever free" the slaves in the Confederate States still in rebellion. Loyal border states that still had slaves were not affected.

So ironically, he did not emancipate a single slave with his proclamation. He left alone the slaveholding border states where he did have power (because they were part of the Union) and said slaves in Confederate states (where Lincoln did not have power) were freed.

Purpose of the proclamation was to strengthen the moral cause of the Union. This was successful both at home and abroad in other countries.


Thirteenth Amendment

Abolished slavery. Passed by the House in January 1865 (had already been passed by the Senate in April 1864)


Thomas J. Jackson

Stonewall Jackson was a successful military leader in the Mexican war and became Robert E. Lee's right hand man for the Confederacy.

Very successful during the Civil War on the side of the Confederacy. He was shot by accident/friendly fire and died as a result.



first ironclad warship commissioned by the Navy...during the Civil war.


Union Party

Formed during campaign of 1864 to join Republicans and War Democrats (dems who supported the war). A strategy to get Lincoln the nomination again.

Some Republicans wanted Chase to be nominated as their candidate, but Lincoln got the nomination.


Ulysses S. Grant

Lincoln's chosen military leader. Lincoln had had trouble with a few leaders before Grant and finally had success with Grant. The south had been blessed with more military leadership talent than the North.



Old US warship that was reconditioned by the South and used to destroy 2 Union ships that were trying to enforce the Blockade (blocking southern ports from shipping).

Renamed the Virginia.


Andrew Johnson

Lincoln's VP running mate, chosen during 1864 campaign because he was a War Democrat who was liked by other Dems and by people in the Border States. this was a political choice to help Lincoln win the election.

No thought was given to whether he could run the country if the president were to die. He was hot tempered and lacked Lincoln's leadership skills.


doctrine of ultimate destination/continuous voyage

Stated that any ships going into a confederate port or any other place that was under a blockade, could be seized by the Union.


George B. McClellan

Lincoln's Commander who was called 'Tardy George" because he spent too much time drilling the soldiers and did not advance quickly to actually fight the Confederates.

Union lost the 7 days war AKA the Peninsula Campaign under his leadership, in June 1862.


Battle of Antietam

September 1862. One of bloodiest days of the war. the Union's leader McClellan stopped the Confederates led by Robert E. Lee.

Very important day because Robert E. Lee's offensive was stopped by the Union. this gave Lincoln the right timing to introduce his preliminary Emancipation Proclamation.


John Wilkes Booth

mentally unstable, fanatical pro Southern actor shot Lincoln at Ford's Theatre on Good Friday, April 14, 1865.


George B. Meade

Union General who was abruptly put in charge of the Union Army before Gettysburg battle.

July 1863, in this valley in PA, this decisive battle was fought.



Democrats in the North who did not support the war. "Peace Democrats". They did not support Lincoln in his reelection. Clement Vallandigham was a Copperhead.


Clement L. Vallandigham

Copperhead and a southern partisan. Stirred up trouble during Lincoln's reelection campaign of 1864. He was banished to the Confederacy. Inspired the character in the 1863 fictional novel "Man without a Country".



Renamed ship...used to be the Merrimack.


Robert E. Lee

Led Confederate troops to win the battles of Bull Run and the Peninsula Campaign.


King Cotton

Cotton was the South's main economic engine. King Cotton was not enough to provide what the Confederate soldiers needed during war.


Length/scope of Civil War

Lincoln wanted war to be short and limited. He stated that its goal was not to eliminate slavery. It ended up lasting 4 years, cost hundreds of thousands of lives and ended slavery. Left challenge of rebuilding the nation, reintegrating southerners into the union (people who had lost, were bitter).


First battle of Bull Run

July 1861, first battle of Civil War. Overconfident and undertrained Union soldiers were beat by the Confederate soldiers.

In the end, victory was worse than defeat for the South because they became overconfident and stopped preparing for a drawn out war.

the North buckled down and got ready for a harder/longer war than it first thought which in the end benefited their side.


Gettysburg Address

Read in autumn 1863 at the dedication of the Cemetery at Gettysburg. 2 minutes long. His speech was timeless, but few paid attention at the time.


April 9, 1865, end of Civil War

Ulysses S. Grant led Union forces into Richmond VA. They captured Robert E. Lee at Appomattox Courthouse.

Grant gave generous terms of surrender to Lee. Lee's soldiers were heartbroken to leave their leader and go home.

Grant stopped Union soldiers from cheering, saying that the Union was together again and those men were once again their countrymen.

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