Flashcards in C19 - Drifting Toward Disunion 1854-1861 Deck (31):
Harriett Beecher Stowe
Mother of 6 who had never seen slavery in the Deep South.
Wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin, a fictional novel that became so widely read that it became very important politically. May have been another push toward the Civil War, this one author changed the course of American history.
Also widely read in Britain and France.
She was hated in the south and her book was banned there.
She met President Abraham Lincoln in 1862.
American (Know-Nothing) party
Due to some ugly antiforeignism (bigotry against Irish and German immigrants and Roman Catholics), this 3rd party was formed.
Called Know nothing party because of their secretiveness.
Nominated ex president Millard Fillmore as their candidate.
Dred Scott decision
Supreme Court decision: March, 1857. Another influential event leading to the Civil War.
This legal case dealt with a black slave, Dred Scott, who sued for his freedom on the grounds that he and his master had lived for years in free states like WI and MI.
The Supreme Court was made up mostly of Southerners. Chief Justice Taney was from slave state of Maryland. He decided that the Supreme Court would hear the case (he may have seen this as a way to put the slavery issue to rest).
The ruling: Slaves are property and therefor could be taken into any territory (free or slave) and still remain the property of his/her master. They also ruled that the Missouri Compromise of 1820 (outlawing slavery in the Missouri territory) had been unconstitutional all along.
Southerners were delighted with this ruling.
Some democrats and all republicans were outraged. Democrats who believed in popular sovereignty, like Stephen Douglas, were outraged.
This decision did not put the slavery issue to rest as C.J. Taney had planned. It further inflamed the sides, with the North refusing to acknowledge the Supreme Court's ruling. The south wondering how much longer they could stay in a Union with the North if the North would not even honor a Supreme Court ruling.
panic of 1857
Financial crash with many causes. The Crimean War in Europe had overstimulated grain growing, which caused a collapse for grain growers in the North. Cotton growers in the South were not affected and became a bit overconfident.
Over speculating on land was also a cause.
Over 5000 businesses failed within a year, causing unemployment and hunger.
This panic gave Republicans some big issues to use in the election of 1860.
John C. Fremont
Explorer and surveyor of the west, he was not tainted by the Kansas Nebraska act (wasn't involved), so that made him a good nominee for the Republicans in the 1857 campaign.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Book written by Harriet Beecher Stowe.
The Impending Crisis of the South
Book written by Hinton Helper of SC and read by many people in the North.
Banned in the South.
New England Immigrant Aid Society
Antislavery organization that sent 2000 people to Kansas on the anti-slavery/North side. In order to push for Kansas to become a free state.
Pottawatomie Creek massacre
5 innocent men were murdered by John Brown and his followers who were abolitionists.
This provoked fighting with proslavery supporters and started civil war in Kansas.
Intelligent senator from MA, who gave a blistering speech that insulted the South.
Congressman Brooks from SC was so outraged, he beat Sumner over the head with his cane.
Referred to the Civil war in Kansas between abolitionists/free-soilers from the North and proslavery forces from the South.
Both sides wanted Kansas on their side in terms of the slavery issue.
Slave whose case was the Dred Scott Decision by the Supreme Court. Very influential decision.
Supreme Court Justice during the Dred Scott case.
Series of famous debates between Lincoln and Douglas before the Senate race of 1858.
Made Lincoln even more well known.
He lost this election, but was left well known and popular.
1857. Kansas had enough people to apply for Statehood. Forces from the South wrote this constitution which stated slaveholders who were already in Kansas could keep their slaves regardless of whether Kansans voted for slavery or no slavery.
The Kansas/Nebraska Territories were formed based on the Kansas Nebraska Act which stated that Popular Sovereignty (vote by the citizens of Kansas) would decide whether Kansas would become a slave state or a free state.
The Constitution was eventually voted down after Stephen Douglas got involved and fought against the provision that said that the whole constitution would not be voted on by the people...only a vote for slavery or against slavery (except that the Constitution guaranteed slaveowners could keep their slaves in any case, which really made this a win only for the South). Douglas argued that true popular sovereignty (which he fought for in the first place when pushing through the Kansas Nebraska Act) required that the whole Lecompton Constitution be put up for a vote. This is when Kansans voted it down.
15th President of the US. 1857-1861. Only president to never marry.
Democrat who favored the platforms of the South.
He was nominated by the Democrats because he hadn't been in the US during the Kansas Nebraska act voting. Therefore, he couldn't be accused by either side of being involved in the passage of the act.
Nickname "Old Buck", a lawyer from PA.
He was not a strong leader as crisis broke out in Kansas.
Republican Candidate in the 1858 Senate campaign. Ran against Democrat Stephan Douglas.
Born very poor in KY. Self educated. Married "above himself" when he married Mary Todd. Learned patience and forbearance due to dealing with his wife's difficult personality.
He had been a lawyer, known as Honest Abe because he would not take cases that would require him to compromise his principles.
Militant (and murderous/crazy) abolitionist who went to Kansas to fight for his ideas.
He and his men viciously killed 5 men, which brought vicious retaliation from proslavery forces from the south.
Constitutional Union party
John C. Breckenridge
Harpers Ferry Raid
Led by John Brown (probably insane). Led a raid and tried to start a slave uprising. General Robert E. Lee (future leader of the Confederacy) arrested him. He was sentenced to death and became a martyr for the abolitionist cause.
Hinton R. Helper
1857 he wrote "The Impending Crisis of the South"
His book was banned in the South.
Read widely in the North.
Congressman from South Carolina who in 1856 was so outraged by the speech of a Senator from the North (Massachusetts) , Senator Charles Sumner, he pounded his cane over Sumner's head until it broke.
Sumner was left bleeding and injured.