Flashcards in C13 - The Rise of a Mass Democracy Deck (61):
Free black man who led a slave revolt in Charleston, NC in 1822.
practice of a State declaring a federal law "null and void". Basically saying they would not follow a federal law.
"nullies" - name given to supporters of nullification.
In SC's election of 1832, nullifies clashed with unionists (who believed in following the federal law). the nullie candidate won, and SC voted to declare the tariff null and void within their state, and threatened to secede (separate from) the united states if the federal government tried to collect the tax by force.
President Jackson was furious.
The system ended in 1824 as existing political parties began to decentralize as a result of the westward expansion of America. The system had come to be known as "King Caucus", because the power that these caucuses had to nominate a president was seen as undemocratic.
John Quincy Adams
1825-1829 was President. 6th President of US. Puritanical and serious. Put into office by the House of Reps b/c no one candidate received enough electoral votes. People accused "corrupt bargain".
Son of 2nd President John Adams
Tariff of Abominations
Passed in 1828. Tax on foreign imports. Goal to protect manufactured goods (mostly from the north). Everyone had to pay higher prices because of the tariff, but people in the South felt most hurt by this. They had to pay the higher prices but weren't producing products that were covered under the tariff.
Southerners reacted loudly. There were other issues adding to the South's outcry. Slavery issues were becoming a problem. They were afraid that the US government would start to pass laws against slavery. Slavery was very popular in the south...they saw slavery as needed to work on plantations, harvest crops, etc....which was the South's economic strength.
The Maysville Road veto occurred on May 27, 1830, when President Andrew Jackson vetoed a bill which would allow the Federal government to purchase stock in the Maysville, Washington, Paris, and Lexington Turnpike Road Company, which had been organized to construct a road linking Lexington, KY. and Maysville, KY.,
1829: name given to Jackson's inauguration (swearing in) party.
For the first time, doors of the White House were open to all of the common man. Masses of laborers, mechanics and rowdy Jackson followers caused a scene.
Big contrast to Thomas Jefferson's simplicity and John Q. Adams more "proper", refined behavior.
Peggy Eaton and the Eaton affair
The Petticoat affair (also known as the Eaton affair or the Eaton malaria) was an 1830–1831 U.S. scandal involving members of President Andrew Jackson's Cabinet and their wives. Although it started over a private matter, it affected the political careers of several men and resulted in the informal "Kitchen Cabinet".
New party in 1832. First time there was a 3rd party involved in a presidential election. They opposed the influence and secrecy of the Masonic order.
Jackson was a Mason, so this group was anti-Andrew Jackson.
They drew many protestant, religious types who wanted the government to pass laws to keep Sunday holy, etc. Jacksonites opposed this idea of government having any influence in private life.
Robert Y. Hayne
Former senator. Governor of SC during the nullification debate.
The Kitchen Cabinet was a term used by political opponents of President of the United States Andrew Jackson to describe the collection of unofficial advisers he consulted in parallel to the United States Cabinet (the "parlor cabinet") following his purge of the cabinet at the end of the Eaton affair and his break with Vice President John C. Calhoun in 1831
1824 election. Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay and Crawford all ran as republicans. Not one of them won a majority of electoral votes, so the House of Representatives had to choose the next President.
People accused them of a "corrupt bargain" because they believed that Adams and Clay made a deal behind the scenes to get the appointment.
Andrew Jackson was very popular and his supporters were mad.
Fiery personality. Challenged people to Duels to solve disagreements. Was Speaker of the House of Representatives when election of 1824 was decided, and he helped to choose John Quincy Adams.
Adams then chose Henry Clay as Secretary of State, a highly coveted (desired) job.
"Revolution of 1828"
Election of 1828 - running candidates for president were John Q. Adams and Andrew Jackson. When: 1828 Why: The election of 1828 is often called the "Revolution of 1828." There was an increased turnout of voters at this election. The large turnout proved that the common people now had the vote and the will to use it for their ends. The results of the election show that the political center of gravity was shifting away from the conservative seaboard East toward the emerging states across the mountains. The revolution was peaceful, achieved by ballots. America had been ruled by the elite brains and wealthy class. Jackson's victory accelerated the transfer of national power from the counting house to the farmhouse, from the East to the West, and from the snobs to the mobs.
rotation in office
Idea that no-one should hold public office for too long.
Big idea of Jackson's, but then decided to run for a 2nd term anyway - election of 1832.
Practice of rewarding political supporters with public office.
First time this was done in the federal government. Jackson brought in many new people to have jobs in the federal government.
Jackson's supporters claimed it was good to bring in new blood.
Reality: only people who were big supporters of Jackson and the Democratic party were given jobs. Some accused of buying their jobs by making campaign contributions.
John C. Calhoun
Vice President under Andrew Jackson.
One of few top political theorists ever produced in America.
Secretly wrote the South Carolina Exposition.
One of the 4 candidates for President in 1824. Had a stroke before the election.
"South Carolina Exposition"
Denounced the Tariff of 1828 (Tariff of Abominations) as unjust and unconstitutional. Encouraged that states should nullify the tariff.
Written by John C. Calhoun - anonymously. He was VP so could not reveal his identity.
Referred to the kind of people who backed Andrew Jackson: farmers, laborers, etc. Not wealthy.
caused the "bank war" to erupt when he and Henry Clay presented Congress with a Bill to renew the charter for the Bank of the US early.
They did this as a political ploy to try to make it an election issue in 1832.
The party of Andrew Jackson. Claimed to represent the "common man". Changed name to "Democrats" by 1828.
Jackson gave him a job in his government. He was a dishonest crook who "swartwouted out" to England, stealing a $1 million from the US government.
Famous rifleman who went to live in Texas while it was still part of Mexico.
Wife of Andrew Jackson. Died in 1829 - 1 month after Jackson took office.
Jackson blamed her death on the viciousness of the campaign. The other side had tried to start rumors about Rachel.
Political party of Andrew Jackson. In 1828 they went from calling themselves the Democratic-Republicans to just "Democrats".
Commander of the Texas military when they claimed independence from Mexico.
Before that, he fought the Indians with Andrew Jackson.
Term given to a few regional favorites chosen by the Whigs to run in the election of 1836.
William Henry Harrison was one.
In 1837, Texas petitioned to become part of the US. Sticky situation because Northern states did not want another slave state.
Indian leader in WI and IL who led Fox and Sauk tribes. Resisted "eviction" from their land by the US government. Crushed bloodily in 1832 by US troops, including Jefferson Davis of Mississippi and Abraham Lincoln of Illinois.
Colonel of the Texas/American army that was crushed by Mexico at the Alamo. He also died.
Van Buren's idea that federal funds should be withdrawn from all pet banks and kept in vaults separate from any banks.
Martin Van Buren
Jackson's Secretary of State and hand-picked successor when he chose not to seek a 3rd term.
He was a Jackson "yes man" and Jackson had pushed hard to get him nominated at the Democratic convention.
Called the "little magician", he was voted in narrowly in the election of 1836. Became 8th President.
He inherited serious problems, including an unstable financial system due to Jackson's treatment of the Bank of the US.
Van Buren had a troubled Presidency, dealing with the economic depression and a rebellion in Canada in 1837 that led to tensions with Britain.
He was not as boisterous and charismatic as Jackson.
passed by Congress in 1833 (called "bloody bill") by some. Said that Federal government had the right to enforce laws in any state, using force if states used nullification to refuse to follow a law.
War hero, known for victories in the War of 1812 and for taking an army into Florida. Charismatic. Popular with the "common men": small farmers, merchants etc. Very popular in the South and West.
Lost election of 1824 due to what some called "corrupt bargain". His supporters pushed him to run in the 1828 election.
Known for being lest nationalistic than John Quincy Adams.
Known as "old hickory" because he was so tough.
Not a good student as a child, creative speller as an adult, no college education (rare for a President) but big personality and great leader.
Tough military fighter.
First President from the West (TN).
Ended up grabbing power that wasn't constitutionally his. eg. Forced relocation of Indians was not legal, but he did it anyway. Also, crippling the Bank of the United States was a huge power grab.
refers to the Lone Star State - Texas. Texas was its own republic after the war with Mexico and before it was admitted as a state of the US.
Granted a large piece of land in Texas, by the newly independent Mexican government. The idea was that 300 American families (all Roman Catholic) would be brought to Texas and then become "Mexicanized".
By 1835, there were 30,000 people in Texas.
State banks chosen to hold US federal funds after Jackson pulled funds out of the Bank of the US.
Pet banks because they were Jackson's "favorites" and they benefited financially from their friendship with the President.
Name given by people in the North to the South to describe what they thought was driving the South's political decisions - the slavery issue.
President of the Bank of the US. Brilliant but arrogant. Many thought he had too much (and unconstitutional) power.
Especially Jackson's followers did not trust the Bank of the United States. They distrusted anything big and powerful. And some western farms had been foreclosed upon by the Bank.
Tariff of 1833
Law narrowly passed by Congress due to the "nullification" showdown with SC over the Tariff of Abominations.
This was a way to compromise and keep armed conflict from happening.
This was Henry Clay's idea, and he was widely seen as coming up with the compromise that avoided armed conflict.
panic of 1837
Financial and economic panic, caused by Andrew Jackson's policies that led to the collapse of the Bank of the US. Without this central bank, currency value changed wildly and there was no financial stability.
Formed in the 1830s as a reaction to Andrew Jackson's iron-fisted presidential power. They chose the name Whigs as a way to show that they opposed "King Andrew I" (their nickname for Andrew Jackson).
Henry Clay, Daniel Webster and John Calhoun were Whigs - they joined forces in 1834 to pass a motion in Congress censuring (punishing) Jackson for single-handedly ruining the Bank of the US.
They attracted other groups alienated by Jackson: even many religious-minded people from the former anti-masonic party.
They turned the message around and declared that they were the party of the common man.
Tariff of 1832
Took away some of the parts of the Tariff of Abominations that "nullies" were complaining about. Still was seen as being a punishing law for the South.
Leader of Seminole Indians in Florida.
Was tricked during a truce meeting and captured by US forces.
In 1840 election, he was chosen without much thought as the VP running mate with William Henry Harrison (who was running for President).
Executive order in 1836 by Andrew Jackson (but mostly carried out by successor Martin Van Buren) that said that all payment for government land had to be in gold.
"Trail of Tears"
US forced relocation of Cherokee, Chocktaw, Seminole and other Indian tribes. US Congress passed laws forcing them to be moved West.
The US Supreme Court under C.J. Marshall had said it was illegal to force the Indians to move, but Andrew Jackson and Congress did it anyway.
Dictator of Mexican government in 1836 when Texans declared their independence from Mexico.
General William Henry Harrison, hero of the Battle of Tippecanoe was the Whig party candidate in the 1836 election..
Florida tribe. Joined by runaway black slaves, escaped forced eviction by the US government by hiding in the swampy Florida Everglades. Engaged in bitter warfare, killing 1500 US soldiers.
In 1837, their leader Osceola was tricked and captured after both sides offered a truce.
1840: Congress passed Martin Van Buren's idea of divorcing or separating all federal funds from banks. Created independent treasury, locking surplus money in vaults. This led to banks not having as much credit in reserve and not being able to lend as much money.
In San Antonio Texas. Place where Santa Anna of Mexico fought and wiped out the Texas army. Colonel W.B. Travis had been in charge of the Texans/Americans. All Americans died.
Davy Crockett and Jim Bowie were some of the heroes killed.
Place in Texas where the Americans/texans beat Santa Anna of Mexico in 1836 and forced him to sign treaties that gave Texas its independence.
Rise of the 2 party political system
During Era of Good Feelings, there were no strong political parties. Between 1824 and 1840, a strong 2-party system developed - loud, strongly voiced their opinions. By 1830s: Democrats v. Whigs.
Some saw the 2-party system as a positive political development. Created checks and balances to moderate widely divided political thoughts. e.g. if 1 party believed in high taxes and the other believed in low taxes. The idea was that the 2-party system would allow final laws to be more moderate; because both parties would have representatives fighting for their own sides.
National mood: Nationalism v. States Rights views
During John Quincy Adams' Presidency: 1825-1829, the national mood was changing from strong Nationalism to stronger States Rights views.
John Quincy Adams was a strong nationalist, so was at odds with the trending mood.
Adams' efforts to build more national roads or use federal funds to build an astronomical (star-watching) observatory, were opposed by many citizens, especially in the South and West who were just scraping by and saw that kind of spending as wasteful, and leading to a larger Federal government which they opposed.
New political parties formed before 1828 election
The Republican party split into 2 camps:
National Republicans (who backed John Quincy Adams) and had more nationalist views
Democratic-Republicans (who backed Andrew Jackson) and had more states-rights, small government type views.
Election of 1828: hit new levels of nastiness between rival sides
Backers of Jackson spread rumors and inflamed anger against John Quincy Adams. Made accusations that were not true.
Backers of Adams were nasty too. Said Jackson's mother was a prostitute, his wife was an adulterer.
Jackson's wife Rachel died a month after the election of 1828. Jackson accused his rivals of killing her with their vicious attacks.
Bank War of 1832.
Henry Clay & Daniel Webster presented Congress with a Bill to renew the charter for the Bank of the US early.
They did this as a political ploy to try to make it an election issue in 1832. Henry Clay wanted to run against Andrew Jackson.
Congress passed the bill but Jackson angrily vetoed it, saying the Bank of the US was unconstitutional anyway and he would not let the charter be extended. The Bank actually was constitutional... the Supreme Court had upheld its constitutionality in an earlier case.
This whole affair became a losing issue for Henry Clay. Jackson's veto was popular.