C12 - The 2nd War for Independence and the Upsurge of Nationalism 1812-1824 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in C12 - The 2nd War for Independence and the Upsurge of Nationalism 1812-1824 Deck (47):
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Bonus Bill of 1817

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panic of 1819

Economic depression. brought deflation in the value of money, bankruptcies, bank failures, unemployment, soup kitchens and overcrowded debtors' prisons.

The West was hard hit because many of its farms were foreclosed on (seized by banks).

Mounting public disgust for the practice of putting debtors in prison also.

2

James Monroe

Became President in 1817. Continued the Virginia Dynasty (was was from VA). Maybe not brilliant, but he was a steady solid leader - which the times called for.

3

Russo-American Treaty of 1824

Russia agreed that its borders were set just south of Alaska - they would not colonize further south.

4

Hartford Convention

3 week convention late in 1814. MA, CT, Rhode Island, NH and VT sent reps. They met for 3 weeks to talk about their grievances. Some suspected they were trying to secede from the US. Federalists in these states did not agree with the War of 1812 and sometimes even aided the British.

Some of the discontent reflected Federalist fears that a once-proud New England was losing power and influence to Democratic-Republicans from the South and West.

These Hartford resolutions were carried to Washington DC at the same time as news of the win at the Battle of New Orleans and the Treaty of Ghent got to Washington. Demands from the Hartford Convention were seen as petty and treasonous. This led to the end of the Federalist party (they nominated their last candidate in the election of 1816 - he was beat).

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internal improvements

Building roads and bridges in the US.

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Thomas Macdonough

American Navy captain who won an important victory in Sept. 1814, forcing the British to retreat and saving upper New York from capture.

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John C. Calhoun

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Land Act of 1820

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Gibbons v Ogden

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Land Act of 1820

Passed by Congress due to Westerners' demands for cheap land.

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Dartmouth College v Woodward

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Daniel Webster

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Dartmouth College v Woodward

1819. One of John Marshall's best remembered decisions. Again enforced the idea that the Constitution protects contracts against state encroachments.

Dartmouth's lawyer was Daniel Webster, an alum.

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Cohens v Virginia

1821: The Cohens were found guilty by the VA Supreme Court of illegally selling lottery tickets. The Cohens appealed to the Supreme Court. The US Supreme Court upheld the VA court ruling of guilty.

But this was more consequential in terms of grabbing more power for the US Supreme Court. It basically held that the US Supreme Court had the power to review rulings of State Supreme Courts.

States Rights believers were very upset at this power shift from State to Federal government

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isolationism

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Daniel Webster

Served for many years in both houses of Congress. Great speaker and statesman, he often argued in front of the Supreme Court, showing his federalist/nationalistic tendencies. C.J. Marshall usually agreed with him.

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Battle of Pittsburgh

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Florida Purchase Treaty

1819: Andrew Jackson had gone into Florida with permission to fight Indians who were causing problems. Jackson went much further than his authority and basically captured parts of FL.

Spanish troops had had to leave Florida to deal with problems in South American Spanish colonies.

So in this treaty, Florida was given to the US in exchange for any claims America had to Texas.


Soon Texas became part of independent Mexico.

19

Battle of Horseshoe Bend

1814: Andrew Jackson and men crushed the southwest Indians.

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Era of Good Feelings

Used to describe the Presidency of James Monroe. Monroe was welcomed everywhere he went. This was a time of one-party rule. Republicans were in charge - Federalist party was gone.

In 1819 the good feelings ended because of an economic depression.

21

William Henry Harrison

American Navy commander who won the Battle of Thames in 1813.

22

Treaty of 1818

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Virginia dynasty

in 1814 Federalists resented what they called the Virginia Dynasty - by 1814 all Presidents except 1 had been from Virginia.

24

Treaty of 1818

Pact with Britain that allowed Americans to share Newfoundland fisheries with Canada. Fixed the vague northern limits of Louisiana from MN to the Rocky Mountains. Also provided for 10-year occupation of Oregon Country jointly between Britain and US.

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Ohio fever

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John Marshall

Long-running chief justice of the Supreme Court. Made many important rulings, increasing the power of the Supreme Court.

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Battle of the Thames

Oct. 1813: US Army led by Harrison beat the Redcoats.

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Ohio fever

Referred to the appeal of cheap land in the West, especially to European immigrants. This encouraged continued Westward expansion.

29

James Fenimore Cooper

Like Washington Irving, Earned world-wide attention in 1820s as one of the 1st authors to use American scenes and themes. The beginning of an American literature movement.

31

McCulloch v Maryland

1819: Supreme Court Case involving the State of MD wanting to tax the notes of a branch of the Bank of the US.

C.J. John Marshall ruled that doing so was unconstitutional. The ruling in this case put focus on the idea of "loose construction": Give the Supreme Court power to infer meaning from the Constitution and apply to a particular case (even if the Constitution doesn't specifically state the idea)

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Oliver Hazard Perry

US Naval officer whose wins on the Great Lakes led to the British being beat by Harrison's army at Battle of Thames: Oct. 1813.

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Treaty of Ghent

Singed Christmas Eve 1814 in Ghent Belgium. War of 1812 ended basically in a draw with neither US or British winning, but American did not lose any of its land. Americans boasted" Not One Inch of Territory Ceded or Lost".

The treaty also did not address any of the issues that were the reasons for the US starting the War of 1812.

Britain was war weary and a Russian Czar also encouraged the cease-fire, worried more about Britain staying strong to help fight battles in Europe.

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Monroe Doctrine

1823. Nationalistic John Quincy Adams won over nationalistic President Monroe.

Monroe issued a stern warning to European powers: 1. noncolonization. 2. nonintervention.

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Nationalism

Feeling of Unity in America after War of 1812.

War created a couple of war heroes: Andrew Jackson and Henry Harrison who later became president.

Revived Bank of the US was formed. New, handsome capital was being built.

Patriotic Americans took pride in it's manufacturing/factories that had flourished during the war.

Led to birth of distinctly American literature.

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Second Bank of the United States

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Andrew Jackson

Military leader won Battle of Horseshoe Bend in 1814, then was put in charge of an American force to defend against the British trying to invade at New Orleans.

Jackson's force had 7000 men-a hodgepodge of sailors, regular army soldiers, Frenchmen, militiamen from LA, KY, TN, and 2 regiments of free black volunteers.

The British force, the invaders, were overconfident and had 8000 men who were all seasoned veterans. In 1/1815, they attached Jackson's force and lost badly (2000 British casualties in 1/2 hour).

This was an amazing victory and winning the Battle of New Orleans caused great national pride and self-confidence.

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nonintervention

Part of Monroe Doctrine of 1823. Warned against European powers intervening in North/South America. He was concerned about events in South America at the time.

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Fletcher v Peck

1810: Georgia legislature had granted land to private speculators. The next GA legislature voted to take this land away. The Supreme Court/John Marshall ruled that the original sale was a contract and that the US/federal Constitution forbids state laws that impair contracts, so it would not allow the GA legislature to take the land back.

Important case because it asserted the right of the Supreme Court to invalidate a state law that it sees as conflicting with the US Constitutition.

39

protective tariff

1816: Law passed to heavily tax goods imported from another country. Protective meant that the law was meant to protect American companies/factories. In the past, the purpose of tariff laws was to raise revenue ($).

After the War of 1812, Britain tried to sell its goods very cheaply in the US, trying to crush new factories in the US by selling goods at a lower price than Americans could make those goods for.

This is why Congress passed protective tariffs...to protect new American factories.

40

Navy v. Army: effectiveness in War of 1812

Navy had more important wins in early years of the war than the Army. Sailors had very important wins in the Great Lakes region, defending against British ships coming from Canada.

American Naval officer, Oliver Hazard Perry built a fleet of ships on the shore of Lake Erie helped US Army officer Harrison to beat the British Redcoats at Battle of Thames.

US Navy leader Thomas McDonough saved upper New York from conquest by British.

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noncolonization

Part of Monroe Doctrine: 1823. Proclaimed that the era of colonization in North and South America was over. He said that European powers could keep land they already had but could not colonize any more.

This was directed specifically at Russia who was venturing south from Alaska and threatening some American lands.

42

protective tariff

Law passed to heavily tax goods imported from another country. Protective meant that the law was meant to protect American companies/factories. In the past, the purpose of tariff laws was to raise revenue ($).

After the War of 1812, Britain tried to sell its goods very cheaply in the US, trying to crush new factories in the US by selling goods at a lower price than Americans could make those goods for.

This is why Congress passed protective tariffs...to protect new American factories.

43

Francis Scott Key

Aug. 1814, he was an American prisoner on a British ship the night that the British were firing cannons into Fort McHenry, trying to capture Washington DC.

He write the words to the Star Spangled Banner that night.

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Bladensburg

Aug. 1814, 4000 British soldiers landed in this Chesapeake Bay location, advanced rapidly toward Washington and burned the Capitol and White House.

While DC burned, American held firm at Baltimore. British fleet hammered Fort McHenry with cannons but could not capture the city.

During this night, Francis Scott Key, an American prisoner on a British ship, wrote the words of the Star Spangled Banner.

45

War of 1812 - called Second War for American Independence

Some good things came as a result of the war. The British blockades caused Manufacturing in America to flourish...causing the US to be less dependent on other nations for goods.

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Settlers moving West

Had smaller populations/less power in Congress so they made friends with others in power. They demanded:

Cheap Land - got this in Land Act of 1820.

Cheap Transportation: slowly got this.

Cheap money: got this issued by it's own "wildcat" banks and fought the powerful Bank of the United States.

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