C28 - America on the World Stage 1899-1909 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in C28 - America on the World Stage 1899-1909 Deck (21):
1

Great White Fleet

Group of 16 US warships that were sent by TR on a tour around the world in 1908, just to show US power. TR did not want to appear weak to Japan because of the Gentlemen's Agreement of 1908.

Latin American countries, Hawaii, Australia all did not like this show of US warships.

There was a warm welcome in Japan, though, which led to the Root-Takahira agreement of 1908.

2

guerrilla warfare

Happened in Philippines during 3-years of fighting (Filipinos were fighting against American rule).

Fighters went into the woods/jungles and shot sniper-style at US soldiers. Very different from traditional war where armies march toward each other.

3

Gentlemen's Agreement

1908: Secret agreement between US and Japan, which ended the problem caused by racist actions against Japanese workers in California. A California school board was treating Japanese students badly/differently because of their race. Japan was highly offended. TR made this agreement to avert the possibility of a war with Japan.

US agreed to stop this treatment and Japan agreed to stop sending Japanese workers to the US (by denying passports).

4

Philippine insurrection

1898 (When Philippines was annexed (possessed) by the US with the Treaty of Paris)...went on for 3 years. Terrible, bloody fighting...many lives lost.

Filipinos wanted independence, and the US would not grant it, so they rose up in insurrection against US rule.

5

big-stick diplomacy

TR Believed in strength over weakness or pacifism. He said "speak softly and carry a big stick", meaning the US needed a strong military (the stick) in order to make diplomacy (speaking/negotiating with foreign countries) successful.

6

Hay-Pauncefote Treaty

1901 Hay-Pauncefote Treaty between US and Britain reversed the Clayton-Bulwar Treaty and gave US access to the South American Isthmus where TR wanted to dig a canal.

7

spheres of influence

Territories, leaseholds, or interests in China that were claimed by foreign countries.

Hay's Open Door notes put rules on countries with "spheres of influence" in China.

8

Portsmouth Conference

1905: Portsmouth NH: Treaty ended the war between Russia and Japan

9

William Howard Taft

Became President in 1909, after McKinley.

Before he was President, he led the Philippine Commission to make recommendations to President McKinley about how to deal with the major problem the US had of how to run the Philippines.

Taft became good friends with the Filipino people.

10

Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty

11/3/1903, the Panama revolution occurred, which caused Panama to be split from Colombia. The fight was over in 3 days because the US blocked Colombian troops from putting down the Panama uprising.

On 11/18/1903, the US signed a treaty with the new Panama leader, giving the US rights to the land that would become the Panama Canal.

The US was now seen as a bully by other countries. TR forced these questionable moves in Colombia/Panama in order to get his way on a Canal. As a result, a country: Colombia was split apart.

Latin American countries grew suspicious of the US because of its seizure of Puerto Rico, strong holdings and Cuba, and now actions in Colombia.

11

Roosevelt Corollary

TR's "addendum" to the Monroe Doctrine (was not really legal).

Said that the US would collect debts of Latin American countries that were owed to European countries like Germany. T

R was trying to keep German ships from coming near South America while trying to force collection of the debts. He did not want these countries' naval ships to be so close to the US.

12

benevolent assimilation

12/1898: proclamation issued by McKinley related to US plans for ruling the Philippines. Said that the US would win the hearts of Filipinos by showing they only had benevolent (good) motives, would try to improve the lives of Filipinos by building roads, starting schools, etc.

Much US $ and effort was spent, but it was not appreciated much by Filipinos...they just wanted their independence and the US would not give it to them.

Finally on 7/4/1946, they gained independence from the US.

13

Open Door notes

1899: dealt with issues happening in China after China was weakened by its loss to Japan in a war in 1985. US worried that Russia and Germany would move in and take over in China, which would not be good for the US.

Hay announced his Open Door Policy in 1899: said that countries that were gaining interests in China had to announce that they would respect Chinese rights and the idea of fair competition in any territories these countries now claimed in China.

Later Hay also proclaimed that no foreign country could claim territory in China.

14

Panama Canal

Finished in 1914 (Just as WWI was breaking out). Took 11 years to complete. American Colonel William Gorgas was a leader. He worked to exterminate yellow fever from the area to make the area safe for workers.

15

Root-Takahira agreement

1908: Agreement between US and Japan saying both countries would respect each other's territories/holdings in the South Pacific and to uphold the Open Door in China.

16

Clayton-Bulwar Treaty

Old treaty with Britain in 1850, said the US could not secure exclusive control over any future canal across the South American Isthmus (now the Panama Canal is there).

This treaty became a problem for TR who wanted the Canal dug, so US ships would have a route from Atlantic to Pacific oceans without having to sail around the southern tip of S. America.

1901 Hay-Pauncefote Treaty between US and Britain reversed the Clayton-Bulwar Treaty and gave US access.

17

Theodore Roosevelt

Teddy Roosevelt (called TR) ran as VP on the McKinley ticket in 1900 Presidential election. TR was a war hero from the Spanish-American war (fought/won in Cuba).

Known for his impulsiveness and radicalism.

He had been elected governor of New York after the War, due to his popularity after the war, but he was not well-liked as governor, so they pushed him to run for VP (to get him out of New York).

TR, at age 42, became President in September 1901 after McKinley was killed.

Big supporter of military and naval preparedness. Believed in strength over weakness or pacifism. He said "speak softly and carry a big stick", meaning the US needed a strong military (the stick) in order to make diplomacy (speaking) successful.

Had a big ego, self-confident and even self-righteous. He called anyone who disagreed with him a liar. Strong, fiery personality, was always front-page news. He was popular because common people saw him as their champion.

Believed in action and did not like the slow pace with which Congress and the Courts sometimes moved. Did not respect the delicate checks and balances of the US's 3 branches of government...he was prone to overstepping his authority as only 1 of the 3 branches.

He had traveled widely and had more intimate knowledge of foreign countries than post Presidents.

18

John Hay

Secretary of State under President McKinley.

1899: dealt with issues happening in China after China was weakened by its loss to Japan in a war in 1985. US worried that Russia and Germany would move in and take over in China, which would not be good for the US.

Hay announced his Open Door Policy in 1899: said that countries that were gaining interests in China had to announce that they would respect Chinese rights and the idea of fair competition in any territories these countries now claimed in China.

Later Hay also proclaimed that no foreign country could claim territory in China. This proclamation was followed mostly because many of the World's powers (US, Germany, Russia, Britain) did not trust each other, so no-one really claimed Chinese territory. The Chinese would have been too weak to have protected themselves and kept their territory intact without these proclamations from Hay.

19

Boxer Rebellion

1899-1901: Violent. Led by super-patriotic Chinese groups. In China - Chinese were protesting foreigners (and Christians) being in China.

Several nations came together to send a military force to put down this rebellion.

20

Algeciras Conference

1906: International conference in Spain, arranged by Roosevelt to mediate North African disputes.

Roosevelt received the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize for organizing this conference and the 1905 Portsmouth Conference, ending Japanese and Russian fighting.

High foreign-policy price for US after TR's diplomacy in these cases though. Both Russia and Japan, which used to be friendly to the US became less friendly and suspicious of the US. This would play out badly in the future.

21

1900 Presidential campaign/election

Republicans re-nominated McKinley, with Teddy Roosevelt (called TR) as his VP. TR was a war hero from the Spanish-American war (fought/won in Cuba).

Democrats nominated William Jennings Bryan.

Terry Roosevelt was a big difference-maker in the election: He traveled tirelessly and with great flair around the country, using cowboy friends to get more attention.

Bryan ran as the candidate against US imperialism/expansionism. He railed on McKinley about the expensive new territory the US had claimed.

Bryan also had some economic ideas that scared voters (free silver).

McKinley/Roosevelt won.

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