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Flashcards in carbohydrates Deck (38)
1

monosaccharides

(aldehydes)

aldoses -sugar
ketose

2

sugars are

optically active

never meso compounds

3

monosaccharides reactions

oxidation only

benedicts
fehlings
tollens

4

when oxidize a monosaccharide

reducing suger

can be oxidized to carb. acid

5

Maltose is

two glucoses
disaccharide

6

hemiacetal can

open
reducing sugar

7

glycoside...

can't open

8

lactose is

milk sugar

9

lactose is made of

galactose (glycoside)
glucose (open)
reducing sugar

10

lactose intolerant

not enough lactase
1. cook milk (hydrolyze disaccharide)
2. lactacid

11

galactosemia

newborns genetic disease
lack enzyme to convert galactose --> glucose (liver)

galactose builds up
mental retardation & death

12

monosaccharides

soluble in H2O
can pass through cell membrane

13

disaccharides

soluble in H2O
cannot move through cell membrane

14

maltose

2 glucose

15

lactose

glucose
galactose

16

sucrose

glucose
fructose
(2x calories fructose)

17

sucrose is

not a reducing sugar

18

polysaccharides

glucose -starch
- glycogen
-cellulose

19

2 polymers of starch

1. amylose
2. amylopectin

20

amylose

straight shape

alpha 1-4 linkage

21

amylopectin

branched
1-6 linkage

22

helix

test for starch
iodine test

23

hydrolysis of starch

starch--> amylose/amylopectin --(amylase)--> dextrins--> maltose ---(maltase)--> 2 glucoses

24

dextrins

glue
"spray" ironing
stamp/envelope glue

25

polysaccharides

1. starch alpha 1-4 linkage
2. glycogen
3. cellulose

26

glycogen

stores glucose in liver and muscles

regulated blood sugar

27

glycogen is

very branched

28

glycogen has

alpha 1-4 linkage

29

cellulose

plant cell walls

cotton, paper, wood, grass, glucose!

30

cellulose has

beta 1-4 linkage

31

saccharin

pink
sweet-and-low

32

aspartame

nutrasweet
blue
equal

33

sucralose
splenda

yellow
replaces hydroxy with chlorides

34

monosaccharides are

reducing sugars

35

are monosaccharides soluble in water

yes

36

monosaccharides can

move through cell membrane

37

monosaccharides go

from open to closed in equilibrium

38

anomers

closed form