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Flashcards in lecture notes Deck (29)
1

cofactor

inactive by self
a. metal ions
b. coenzymes

2

coenzymes

organic molecule NOT a protein
from: vitamins, diet (body cannot make)

3

Thiamine

TPP

4

riboflavin

FAD

5

niacin

NAD

6

folic acid

THF

7

pantothenic acid

coenzyme A

8

vitamin C

collagen (not a coenzyme)

9

lysozyme

enzyme found in saliva tears
destroys invading bacteria

--destroys CELL WALL of bacteria

10

cholinesterase

NT acetylcholine (substrate)
--breaks up after on receptor site

11

Vitamin K

needed for blood clotting
spinach broccoli

prothrombin --> thrombin

12

vitamin E

large doses anticoagulant

13

regulation (all enzymes)

-produce more enzymes when excess of substrate
-make new enzymes (process=SLOW)

14

allosteric control

1. enzymes found in metabolic pathways
2. several subunits
3. active site for substrate different

15

substrate

reactant

16

allosteric enzyme

works on first enzyme

17

deactivator

slows down pathway is nonessential and excess
"building up"

18

allosteric control (nonenzyme)

protein hemoglobin
binding of O2 activates

19

proenzymes (zymogens)

inactive form --> active when needed

e.g . protease
blood clotting

20

phosphate ...

covalent bond to enzyme turns one on and one off

21

irreversible inhibition

POISONS

permanent deadly
(covalent bond to side chain of amino acid in active site)
Blocks Substrate
--inhibitor does NOT LOOK like substrate
e.g. nerve gas, arsenic, snake venom

22

Reversible competitive inhibitors

I looks like S
NOT permanent
SAME active site (h-bonding, salt bridge)
remove I by adding more S

23

example Reversible competitive inhibitors

bacteria (folic acid) sulfa drug

antifreeze poisoning

24

reversible noncompetitive inhibitor

ex. allosteric inhibitor

I does NOT look like S
I and S have DIFFERENT active sites
removing I reversible

e.g. heavy metals poisoning

25

heavy metals change...

3 structure
effects active site

26

makes up acetylcholine

acetic acid

choline (alcohol)

27

curare

arrow posioning

competitive inhibitor to A.C
prevents A.C bonding
paralysis, death
small amts muscle relaxer

28

irreversible inhibition on enzyme

--prevents enzyme from breaking down (hydrolyzed)
--NOT released from muscle causing convulsions/death
--NERVE GAS (SARIN)

29

Botulism

--botox, snake venon, canned goods
--BLOCKS release NT (AC)
--no nerve impulse going across~ heart lungs stop working
--paralysis, death