Glycolysis worksheet Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Glycolysis worksheet Deck (96)
1

TRUE glycogen

1. stored in the muscle and is used only by the muscle
2. storage will increase after a big meal
3. stored in the liver is used to regulate the body's blood sugar
4. it is the most branched of all the polysaccharides

2

Glycogen is stored in

the muscle

and is used only by the muscle

3

glycogen storage will

increase after a big meal

4

glycogen stored in the liver

is used to regulate the body's blood sugar

5

glycogen is the

most branched of all the polysaccharides

6

Blood sugar can

all cells can use blood sugar

7

Red blood cells

can use ONLY blood sugar for its energy

8

High blood sugar

hyperglycemia

9

if blood sugar gets too high

excess can be excreted by the kidneys

10

blood sugar is regulated

by hormones

11

hypoglycemia can

lead to fainting and shock

12

hyperglycemia can

cause blindness and cardiovascular disease

13

glucagon is composed

of amino acids

14

glucagon is synthesized by

the pancreas

15

glucagon's concentration

will be low when insulin's concentration is high

16

insulin is

a protein hormone

17

insulin's nickname

"feast" hormone

18

Insulin tries

to lower blood sugar after a meal

19

insulin will inhibit

glycogenolysis

20

insulin will also inhibit

gluconeogenesis

21

insulin will stimulate

entry of glucose into a muscle cell

22

insulin will inhibit the

breakdown of fatty acids

23

does NOT occur in "fight or flight"

epinephrine crosses the cell membrane

24

glycogen is converted to glucose-1-phosphate in the muscles

"fight or flight"

25

epinephrine stimulates the production of cyclic-AMP in muscle cells

"fight or flight"

26

cAMP causes the glycogen synthetase to be deactivated

"fight or flight"

27

glycogenolysis is stimulated

"fight or flight"

28

which are proteins (polypeptides)

insulin

lactic acid dehydrogenase

glucagon

29

polysaccharides

glycogen

30

move through the cell membrane

cortisol

glucose

31

stimulate fatty acid synthesis from acetylCoA

insulin

32

stimulate the immediate conversion of glycogen to glucose-1-phosphate in the liver

glucagon

33

stimulate the immediate conversion of glycogen to glucose-1-phosphate in the muscle

epinephrine

34

stimulate the conversion of certain amino acids to glucose in gluconeogenesis

cortisol

glucagon

35

anabolism
catabolism

reverse order

36

gluconeogenesis
glycolysis

not reverse order

37

glycogenolysis
glycogenesis

reverse order

38

photosynthesis
complete oxidation of glucose

reverse order

39

compounds converted to glucose in gluconeogenesis

lactic acid

glycerol

some amino acids

40

which cells need insulin for glucose reentry

muscle cells
liver
adipose

41

if glycogen synthetase were allosteric, what effect would ATP have on it

active

42

the purpose of converting pyruvic acid to lactic acid is to regnerate

NAD

43

fructose-6-phosphate to
glucose-6-phosphate

no energy needed

44

inhibits glycogenesis in the liver

glucagon

45

stimulates glycogenolysis in the muscle

ephinephrine

46

stimulates entry of glucose into a muscle cell

insulin

47

inhibits gluconeogenesis

insulin

48

stimulates entry of glucose into brain cell

none

49

glucose

can move through cell

50

glycogen

cannot move through cell

51

CO2

can move through cell

52

galactose

move through cell

53

glucose-1-phosphate

cannot move through cell

54

steroid hormones

move through cell

55

fatty acid

move through cell

56

glycerol

move through cell

57

protein hormones

cannot move through cell

58

epinephrine

cannot move through cell

59

amino acid

move through cell

60

polypeptides

cannot move through cell

61

TRUE insulin

inhibits glycogenolysis

stimulates entry of glucose into muscle tissue & liver tissue

62

insulin inhibits

glycogenolysis

63

insulin stimulates entry

of glucose into muscle tissue & liver tissue

64

FALSE insulin

1. too much insulin will result in hyperglycemia
2. stimulates entry of glucose into brain cells
3. stimulates gluconeogenesis

65

cAMP system is used for

mainly protein hormones

66

glycogen to
glucose-1-phosphate

phosphorylase

67

glucose-1-phosphate to
glucose-6-phosphate

mutase

68

glucose & ATP to
glucose-6-phophate & ADP

kinase

69

glucose-6-phosphate to
glucose

phosphatase

70

glycolysis is taking place in a red blood cell, where is the starting point

glucose

71

if glycolysis is taking place in a muscle cell (within the first few hours), what is the starting point

glycogen

72

in glycolysis, glucose is converted to

pyruvate

73

which steps in glycolysis have allosteric enzymes

1, 3, 10

74

what steps of glycolysis consume ATP

step 1

step 3

75

making of lactic acid in step 11a of glycolysis has no value except for getting NAD+ back

true

76

the purpose of glycolysis is to produce ATP

true

77

steps 1, 2, 3, and 10 of glycolysis
are catalyzed by allosteric enzymes

false

78

pyruvic acid produced in glycolysis goes to the krebs cycle under anaerobic conditions

false

aerobic

79

the net gain of glycolysis starting from glycogen in the muscle is 3 ATP and 2NADH

true

80

glycogen (muscle) ATP: NADH

3 ATP
2 NADH

81

glucose ATP: NADH

2ATP
2 NADH

82

phosphorylation of glycogen phosphorylase decreases its activity

flase

83

phosphorylation of glycogen phosphorylase increases its activity

true

84

phosphorylation of glycogen synthetase decreases its activity

true

85

protein kinase, activated by cAMP, attaches a phosphate group to several proteins in the cell

true

86

protein kinase acts on phosphorylase kinase and glycogen synthetase by covalent modification

true

87

adenylate cyclase converts cAMP to ATP + 2 phosphates

false

88

Fructose-6-pi ---> Fructose + Pi

exothermic

89

ADP + Pi ---> ATP

endothermic

90

Fructose-6-Pi + ADP ---> Fructose

endothermic

91

creatine- Pi ---> creatine + Pi

exothermic

92

ADP + Pi ----> ATP

endothermic

93

creatine-Pi + ADP ---> creatine + ATP

exothermic

94

glucose-6-Pi ----> glucose + Pi

exothermic

95

creatine + Pi ---> creatine -Pi

endothermic

96

glucose-6-Pi + creatine ---> glucose +creatine-Pi

enothermic