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Flashcards in quiz 10 Deck (78)
1

What is the name of the "secondary messenger" inside of a cell

cAMP
or cyclic AMP

2

what enzyme is needed to convert glycogen to glucose-1-phosphate

phosphorylase

3

what enzyme is needed to convert glucose-6-phosphate to glucose

phosphatase

4

what is the substrate of the enzyme in step 2 in glycolysis

glucose-6-phosphate

5

what is the product of the enzyme in step 2 in glycolysis

fructose-6-phosphate

6

what is the product of the enzyme in step 2 in glycolysis

dihydroxyacetone phosphate

glyceraldehyde-3- phosphate

7

what two products are formed in the cleavage of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate

fermentation

8

if the yeast cell has oxygen what are the final products of glucose metabolism

water
carbon dioxide

9

anaerobic conditions, what is the pyruvic acid (in humans) converted to

lactic acid

10

the purpose of the reaction pyruvic acid to
is to regenerate what compound

NAD

11

what is the enzyme for the reaction above

dehydrogenase

12

in anaerobic conditions, the pyruvic acid in yeasts cells is first converted to what compound

acetalaldehyde

13

the breakdown of glycogen in the muscles is stimulated by what hormone

epinephrine

14

where is epinephrine made

adrenal glands

15

what is the enzyme needed for
pyruvic acid in yeast cells to be converted to acetalaldehyde

decarboxylase

16

glyconeogenesis (insulin)

inhibits

17

glycogenolysis (insulin)

inhibits

18

entry of glucose into a red blood cell (insulin)

no effect

19

entry of glucose into a muscle cell (insulin)

activates

20

where does
glycogenesis

liver and muscle

21

where does
gluconeogenesis

liver

22

where does
glycolysis

all cells

23

where does
glucogenolysis

liver and muscle

24

glycogen synthesis

endothermic

25

oxidation of glucose to CO2 & H2O

exothermic

26

ADP & Pi --> ATP

endothermic

27

conversion of glucose-1-phospate
to
glucose-6-phosphate

endothermic

28

anabolic reactions

endothermic

29

hydrolysis of glycogen to glucose

exothermic

30

hydrolysis of glucose-6-phosphate
to
glucose

exothermic

31

CH3CH2OH to CH3CH=O

exothermic

32

concerning glycolysis
step 2

mutase
isomerase

33

concerning glycolysis
step 6

dehydrogenase

34

concerning glycolysis
step 7

kinase

35

concerning glycolysis
step 8

mutase
isomerase

36

all cells need insulin to help the passage of glucose into the cell

false

37

in coupled reactions, the energy of the endothermic reaction should be larger than the exothermic reaction

false

38

converting pyruvic acid to acetyl-CoA is an irreversible reaction

true

39

glucose-6-phosphate is always converted into pyruvic acid in both the liver and muscle

false

40

the same amount of energy will be created if one starts with glycogen or glucose

false

41

two phosphates must be on the fructose molecules before it can be split into 2 compounds

true

42

in aerobic condition, pyruvic acid must be converted into lactic acid

false

43

anabolic reactions are converting smaller molecules to larger ones

true

44

without oxygen, a cell cannot do glycolysis

false

45

oxidation reactions produce energy, which can be used to drive an endothermic reaction

true

46

a cell without mitochondria does only glycolysis for energy

true

47

in anaerobic conditions, the NAD cannot be regenerated, so glycolysis will stop

false

48

even though oxygen is found only at the last step of the electron transport system, if a cell has no oxygen the Krebs cycle will not work

true

49

a red blood cell gets most of its energy from the Krebs cycle

false

50

which part produces the most CO2

krebs cycle

51

actually uses O2 molecules

electron transport

52

occurs only in the cytoplasm

glycolysis

53

can occur in anaerobic conditions

glycolysis

54

converts FADH2 to FAD

electron transport

55

where oxidative phosphorylation takes place

electron transport

56

about what percent of energy in glucose is saved in glycolysis

2%

57

what step in glycolysis represents substrate level phosphorylation

7 or 10

58

which step in glycolysis is an oxidation

#6

59

which step in glycolysis is a dehydration

#9

60

what type of functional group is found at the very end of a coenzyme A molecule

thioalcohol

61

what is the high energy bond in acetyl-CoA

a thio ester

62

what is the high energy bond in glucose-6-phosphate

phosphate ester

63

why is a phosphatase found only in the liver

glycogen in the liver must provide glucose for the entire body

64

which cannot be converted back to glucose-1-phosphate

fructose-1,6,-bisphosphate

65

when glucagon affects a liver cell, what happens

glucagon turns on an enzyme which catalyzes the reaction ATP to cAMP

kinase enzymes are turned on so phosphates can be put on glycogen synthetase and glycogen phosphorylase

66

what are the NOT effects of glucagon

glycogenolysis is stimulated in the liver and muscle

glucose is converted to glycogen in the liver

gluconeogenesis is inhibited

67

possible "fate" of pyruvate in the human body

conversion to acetyl CoA

reduction to lactic acid in muscle

68

what is the purpose of the cori cycle

move lactic acid out of the muscle

have the liver provide the muscle with "new" glucose

69

what causes muscle fatigue

accumulation of lactic acid

have the liver provide the muscle with "new" glucose

70

what causes muscle fatigue

accumulation of lactic acid

acidosis

71

the enzyme in step 1 of the Krebs cycle is an allosteric enzyme with sites for ATP, ADP, and NADH

which would activate the enzyme

ADP

72

assuming oxygen is available, which can be converted into the most ATP

one NADH in the mitochondria

73

which can produces the most ATP per glucose molecule

glucose metabolism in the liver under aerobic conditions

74

how many CO2 are produced from Anaerobic oxidation of 3 glucose molecules in a human cell

none

75

how many ATP are produced from Anaerobic oxidation of 3 glucose molecules in a human cell

6

anaerobic
3 x 2

76

how many CO2 are produced from the anaerobic oxidation of 3 glucose molecules in a yeast cell

36

77

how many ATP are produced from the anaerobic oxidation of 3 glucose molecules in a yeast cell

6

78

how many pyruvic acids can be made from 2 sucrose molecules in glycolysis

8

2 sucrose= 4 glucose
2 pyruvic acids in glycolysis

4 x 2 = 8