Flashcards in Cardio Deck (98)
Septum MI => name coronary artery & ECG leads
LAD for anterior 2/3 of septum; RCA for posterior 1/3;
LV MI => name area, coronary artery & ECG leads
lateral wall of LV;
left circumflex artery;
I, aVL, V5, V6
Aortic stenosis murmur => location & sound
Left 2nd ICS radiating toward carotid or cardiac apex;
crescendo-decrescendo systolic ejection murmur
Mitral regurg murmur => location & sound
cardiac apex (confused w/ TR);
holosystolic blowing murmur => louder on inspiration;
Define sarcomere. What is it composed of?
Z line to Z line (Z line=middle dark line bw light areas);
composed of thick filament (myosin) & thin filaments (actin, troponin, tropomyosin)
Role of T tubule
carry AP into cell interior
Location & role of intercalated disks
ends of cells & mediate adhesion bw cells
Location & role of gap junctions
occur at intercalated disks;
provide path of low resistance for AP to rapidly spread
What happens in S1 heart sound?
MV & tricuspid valve close => MV closes before so can be split
What happens in S2 heart sound?
AV & PV close => AV closes first;
inspiration causes increase S2 split
What happens in S3 heart sound? What does it mean?
at end of rapid ventricular filling;
normal in kids & pregnant;
adults have dilated CHF
What happens in S4 heart sound? What does it mean?
Filling of ventricle by atrial systole;
not normally audible in adults;
signifies high atrial pressure or stiff ventricle
What physical exam will identify RHF?
Slope of Y descent decreases when? increases when?
decreases in tamponade => RA empties slower
increases in constrictive pericarditis
What increases O2 consumption?
increases in after load, contractility, HR, size of heart
What increases Mean systemic pressure?
increased blood volume;
decreased venous compliance (blood shifted from veins to arteries);
Name the 7 ways BP is regulated
Short term => baroreceptor reflex active & activity increases BP
Long term => RAAS;
Relative term => cerebral ischemia to hypercapnia, hypoxia w/ < PO2, severe volume depletion leading to ADH; ANP from atrial stretch; autoregulation
What is the highest resistance in the CV system? what are they responsible for?
arterioles => largest drop in perfusion pressure
What has the highest proportion of blood in CV?
What has largest total cross sectional & surface area? What does it facilitate?
capillaries => gas exchange
What are the roles of histamine & bradykinin in vasculature?
mediate arteriolar dilation & venous constriction
What is role of serotonin in vasculature?
Name the different roles of types of prostaglandins in vasculature
prostacyclin => vasodilator
TXA-2 => vasoconstrictor
What increases Hct to increase resistance of flow?
hyperproteinemia (multiple myeloma);
What increases turbulence (bruits)?
decreased blood viscosity (anemia);
increased blood velocity (narrow vessel, increased CO)
Edema caused by increase in capillary hydrostatic pressure?
increased venous pressure;
standing (edema in dependent limbs)
Edema caused by decreased in capillary oncotic pressure?
decrease in plasma protein 2' to:
decreased synthesis (liver dz);
decreased intake (protein malnutrition);
increased excretion (nephrotic syndrome)
Edema caused by increasing the filtration coefficient?
What typically causes a transudate?
increased capillary hydrostatic pressure or decreased capillary oncotic pressure