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Flashcards in Cardio Deck (98)
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31

Septum MI => name coronary artery & ECG leads

LAD for anterior 2/3 of septum; RCA for posterior 1/3;
V2, V3

32

LV MI => name area, coronary artery & ECG leads

lateral wall of LV;
left circumflex artery;
I, aVL, V5, V6

33

Aortic stenosis murmur => location & sound

Left 2nd ICS radiating toward carotid or cardiac apex;
crescendo-decrescendo systolic ejection murmur

34

Mitral regurg murmur => location & sound

cardiac apex (confused w/ TR);
holosystolic blowing murmur => louder on inspiration;

35

Define sarcomere. What is it composed of?

Z line to Z line (Z line=middle dark line bw light areas);
composed of thick filament (myosin) & thin filaments (actin, troponin, tropomyosin)

36

Role of T tubule

carry AP into cell interior

37

Location & role of intercalated disks

ends of cells & mediate adhesion bw cells

38

Location & role of gap junctions

occur at intercalated disks;
provide path of low resistance for AP to rapidly spread

39

What happens in S1 heart sound?

MV & tricuspid valve close => MV closes before so can be split

40

What happens in S2 heart sound?

AV & PV close => AV closes first;

inspiration causes increase S2 split

41

What happens in S3 heart sound? What does it mean?

at end of rapid ventricular filling;
normal in kids & pregnant;
adults have dilated CHF

42

What happens in S4 heart sound? What does it mean?

Filling of ventricle by atrial systole;
not normally audible in adults;
signifies high atrial pressure or stiff ventricle

43

What physical exam will identify RHF?

JVD

44

Slope of Y descent decreases when? increases when?

decreases in tamponade => RA empties slower

increases in constrictive pericarditis

45

What increases O2 consumption?

increases in after load, contractility, HR, size of heart

46

What increases Mean systemic pressure?

increased blood volume;
decreased venous compliance (blood shifted from veins to arteries);
exercise (SANS)

47

Name the 7 ways BP is regulated

Short term => baroreceptor reflex active & activity increases BP
Long term => RAAS;
Relative term => cerebral ischemia to hypercapnia, hypoxia w/ < PO2, severe volume depletion leading to ADH; ANP from atrial stretch; autoregulation

48

What is the highest resistance in the CV system? what are they responsible for?

arterioles => largest drop in perfusion pressure

49

What has the highest proportion of blood in CV?

veins

50

What has largest total cross sectional & surface area? What does it facilitate?

capillaries => gas exchange

51

What are the roles of histamine & bradykinin in vasculature?

mediate arteriolar dilation & venous constriction

52

What is role of serotonin in vasculature?

arteriolar constriction

53

Name the different roles of types of prostaglandins in vasculature

prostacyclin => vasodilator

TXA-2 => vasoconstrictor

54

What increases Hct to increase resistance of flow?

polycythemia;
hyperproteinemia (multiple myeloma);
hereditary spherocytosis

55

What increases turbulence (bruits)?

decreased blood viscosity (anemia);
increased blood velocity (narrow vessel, increased CO)

56

Edema caused by increase in capillary hydrostatic pressure?

increased venous pressure;
standing (edema in dependent limbs)

57

Edema caused by decreased in capillary oncotic pressure?

decrease in plasma protein 2' to:
decreased synthesis (liver dz);
decreased intake (protein malnutrition);
increased excretion (nephrotic syndrome)

58

Edema caused by increasing the filtration coefficient?

burn;
inflammation (sepsis)

59

What typically causes a transudate?

increased capillary hydrostatic pressure or decreased capillary oncotic pressure

60

What typically causes an exudate?

more permeable vessels => increased filtration coefficient;
vessel becomes leaky & protein & fluid leave