Flashcards in Cardio Deck (98)
What are the locations & corresponding leads...inferior? anterior?
inferior => II, III, aVF
What does the PR interval depend on? tachycardia?
depends on conduction velocity through AV node & HR;
Differentiate Mobitz type I vs type II AV blocks
PR interval in type I lengthens until beat is dropped;
PR interval remains constant before dropped beat in type II
What is a mural thrombus? what is a risk factor for LA mural thrombus?
adheres to wall of heart or artery;
mitral stenosis is risk factor for LA mural thrombus
What is MCC of atrial fib in US?
What is the initial DOC for Tx of primary HTN?
How do ACE-inhibitors lower mortality & morbidity in diabetic HTN?
decrease renal HTN by decreasing efferent arteriolar vasoconstriction to decrease intraglomerular pressure to lessen proteinuria
Define primary aldosteronism
HTN, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis (increased aldosterone, decreased renin)
Medial calcification of radial, ulnar, tibial, uterine or femoral arteries have what Sx?
benign medial calcification of medium sized arteries does NOT INVOLVE the intima so does NOT obstruct arterial flow
Define arteriolosclerosis. When is it most often seen?
affects intima of small arterioles & arteries;
seen in elderly, diabetics, metabolic syndrome, HTN
Differentiate the 2 types of arteriolosclerosis
hyaline => protein deposits in arterial wall to narrow lumen => seen in diabetics due to NEG;
=>in HTN pt from pressure forcing proteins into wall causing increased muscle & elastic tissue
hyperplastic => malignant HTN => increased smooth muscle proliferation & BM duplication to onion skinning
Where are aneurysm's typically found? why?
below level of renal arteries due to fewer vasa vasorum in the media of these vessels leading to increased risk & damage of ischemia
What is the MC etiology of myocarditis?
viral => coxsackie B, rubella, CMV => lymphocytic infiltrates
When is bacterial myocarditis seen? what are usual bugs?
S aureus; Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Haemophilus influenzae
Other than bacteria, pt w/ HIV get myocarditis how?
toxoplasmosis or Kaposi's sarcoma
What are diseases & Rx that can cause myocarditis?
Chagas, Lyme, acute renal failure, rheumatic fever, lupus, doxorubicin
How does myocarditis present?
muffled S1; S3; MR murmur
diffuse T wave inversion & ST elevations => Bx is best Dx
Bacterial cause of endocarditis assoc w/ prosthetic device
Staph epidermis w/in first 6 months;
after 6 mo then S. aureus & viridans
Bacterial cause of endocarditis assoc w/ colon cancer
Bacterial cause of endocarditis assoc w/ dental procedure
Bacterial cause of endocarditis assoc w/ GI surgery
Bacterial cause of endocarditis assoc w/ total parenteral nutrition
Bacterial cause of endocarditis assoc w/ alcoholics or homeless
Bacterial cause of endocarditis assoc w/ fastidious & culture negative
HACEK organisms => Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, Kingella
Nutmeg liver on histology
congestion of centrilobular veins surrounded by paler region
What are the treatments for acute decompensated CHF?
Murmur of MVP is seen in who? what makes it worse?
Marfan's & young women; SLE; mucopolysaccharidoses (hurler & hunter); hypothyroidism; Ehlers-Danlos
Valsalva makes it worse
What does S3 in older adult mean?
occurs in early diastole & implies volume overload
What does TR murmur increase w/ inspiration?
blowing holosystolic murmur at L LSB due to increase in venous return to R side of heart