Flashcards in Cardio Deck (73)
What organs have resistance in series?
What organs have resistance in parallel?
All the rest
What organ has the highest A-VO2 difference at rest?
What organ has the highest A-VO2 difference after excercise?
What organ has the highest A-VO2 difference after meal?
What organ has the highest A-VO2 difference during a test?
What organ has the lowest A-VO2 difference?
Where does Type A thoracic aortic dissection occur?
Ascending aorta (occurs in cystic medial necrosis, syphilis)
Where does type B thoracic aortic dissection occur?
Descending aorta (occurs in trauma, atherosclerosis)
What layers does a true aortic aneurysm occur?
Intima, media and adventitia
What layers does a pseudo aortic aneurysm occur?
Intima and media
What is pulse pressure?
Systolic- Diastolic pressure
What vessel has the thickest layer of smooth muscle?
What vessels have the most smooth muscle?
What vessel have the largest cross-sectional area?
What vessel has the highest compliance?
What vessel have the highest capacitance?
Veins and venules
What is your max heart rate?
220 - age
What is Stable Angina?
Pain with exertion (atherosclerosis)
What is unstable angina?
Pain at rest (transient clots)
What is Prinzmetal's angina?
Intermittent pain (coronary artery spasm)
What is Amyloidosis?
Stains congo red, echo apple green birefringence
What is hemochromatosis?
Fe deposit in organs => hyperpigmentation, arthritis, DM
What is cardiac tamponade?
Pressure equalizes in all 4 chambers, quiet precordium, no pulse or BP, kussmaul's sign, pulsus paradoxus (lower >10 mmHg BP w/inspiration)
What is transudate?
An effusion with mostly water
Too much water:
- heart failure
- renal failure
Not enough protein:
- cirrhosis (cant make protein)
- nephrotic syndrome (pee protein out)
What is an exudate?
An effusion with mostly protein
Too much protein:
- purulent (bacteria)
- hemorrhagic (trauma , cancer, PE)
- fibrinous (collagen vascular dz, uremia, TB)
- granulomatous (non-bacterial)
What is Systole?
Squish heart, LOW blood flow to coronary aa, more extraction of O2 (phase 1 korotkoff)
What is diastole?
Fill heart, increase blood flow to coronary aa, less extraction of O2 (phase 5 korotkoff)
What are the only arteries w/ deoxygenated blood?
Pulmonary arteries and umbilical arteries
What murmur has a Waterhammer pulse?
What murmur has Pulsus tardus?
What cardiomyopathy has Pulsus alternans?
What disease has a Pulsus bigeminus?
Idiopathic Hypertrophic Subaortic Stenosis
What murmur has an irregularly irregular pulse?
What murmur has a regularly irregular pulse?
What sound radiate to the neck?
What sound radiates to the axilla?
What sound radiate to the back?
What disease has a boot-shaped xray?
Right ventricle hypertrophy
What disease has a banana shaped xray?
What disease has an egg shaped xray?
Transposition of the great arteries
What disease has a snowman shaped xray?
Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return
What disease has a "3" shaped xray?
Coarctation of the aorta
What is Osler-Weber-Rendu?
AVM in lung, gut, CNS => sequester platelets => telangiectasias
What is Von Hippel-Lindau?
AVM in head, retina => renal cell CA risk
When do valves makes noise?
When valves close
What valves make noise during sytole?
mitral and tricuspid
What murmur occurs during systole?
Holosystolic, ejection murmur or click
What are the holosystolic murmurs?
TR, MR or VSD
What are the systolic ejection murmur?
AS, PS, or HCM
What valves make noise during diastole?
Aortic and pulmonic
What are the diastolic murmur?
What are the diastolic blowing murmurs?
AR or PR
What are the diastolic rumbling murmus?
TS or MS
What are the continuous murmurs?
PDA or AVMs
What has a friction rub while breathing?
What has a friction rub when holding breath?
What does a mid-systolic click tell you?
Mitral Valve Prolapse
What does an ejection click tell you?
What does an opening snap tell you?
What does S2 splitting tell you?
Normal on inspiration (b/c pulmonic valve closes later)
What does wide S2 splitting tell you?
Increases O2, INCREASES RV volume, or delayed pulmonic valve opening
What does fixed wide S2 splitting tell you?
What does paradoxical S2 splitting tell you?
AS (or left bundle branch block)
What is cor pulmonale?
Pulmonary HTN => RV failure
What is Eisenmenger's?
Pulmonary HTN => reverse L-R to R-L shunt
What is Tranposition of the great arteries?
Aorticpulmonary septum did not spiral
What is Tetrology of Fallot?
Overriding Aorta: aorta sits on IV septum over the VSD; pushes on PA
What is total anomalous pulmonary venous return?
All pulmonary veins to RA, snowman xray
What is Troncus Arteriosus?
Spiral membrane not develop => one A/P trunk, mixed blood
What is Ebstein's Anomaly?
Tricuspid prolapse, Mom's Li increases risk
What can Lithium do to Mom?
Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus