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Flashcards in Cardio Deck (73)
0

What organs have resistance in series?

Liver, kidney

1

What organs have resistance in parallel?

All the rest

2

What organ has the highest A-VO2 difference at rest?

Heart

3

What organ has the highest A-VO2 difference after excercise?

Muscle

4

What organ has the highest A-VO2 difference after meal?

Gut

5

What organ has the highest A-VO2 difference during a test?

Brain

6

What organ has the lowest A-VO2 difference?

Kidney

7

Where does Type A thoracic aortic dissection occur?

Ascending aorta (occurs in cystic medial necrosis, syphilis)

8

Where does type B thoracic aortic dissection occur?

Descending aorta (occurs in trauma, atherosclerosis)

9

What layers does a true aortic aneurysm occur?

Intima, media and adventitia

10

What layers does a pseudo aortic aneurysm occur?

Intima and media

11

What is pulse pressure?

Systolic- Diastolic pressure

12

What vessel has the thickest layer of smooth muscle?

Aorta

13

What vessels have the most smooth muscle?

Arterioles

14

What vessel have the largest cross-sectional area?

Capillaries

15

What vessel has the highest compliance?

Aorta

16

What vessel have the highest capacitance?

Veins and venules

17

What is your max heart rate?

220 - age

18

What is Stable Angina?

Pain with exertion (atherosclerosis)

19

What is unstable angina?

Pain at rest (transient clots)

20

What is Prinzmetal's angina?

Intermittent pain (coronary artery spasm)

21

What is Amyloidosis?

Stains congo red, echo apple green birefringence

22

What is hemochromatosis?

Fe deposit in organs => hyperpigmentation, arthritis, DM

23

What is cardiac tamponade?

Pressure equalizes in all 4 chambers, quiet precordium, no pulse or BP, kussmaul's sign, pulsus paradoxus (lower >10 mmHg BP w/inspiration)

24

What is transudate?

An effusion with mostly water

Too much water:
- heart failure
- renal failure

Not enough protein:
- cirrhosis (cant make protein)
- nephrotic syndrome (pee protein out)

25

What is an exudate?

An effusion with mostly protein

Too much protein:
- purulent (bacteria)
- hemorrhagic (trauma , cancer, PE)
- fibrinous (collagen vascular dz, uremia, TB)
- granulomatous (non-bacterial)

26

What is Systole?

Squish heart, LOW blood flow to coronary aa, more extraction of O2 (phase 1 korotkoff)

27

What is diastole?

Fill heart, increase blood flow to coronary aa, less extraction of O2 (phase 5 korotkoff)

28

What are the only arteries w/ deoxygenated blood?

Pulmonary arteries and umbilical arteries

29

What murmur has a Waterhammer pulse?

AR

30

What murmur has Pulsus tardus?

AS

31

What cardiomyopathy has Pulsus alternans?

Dilated cardiomyopathy

32

What disease has a Pulsus bigeminus?

Idiopathic Hypertrophic Subaortic Stenosis

33

What murmur has an irregularly irregular pulse?

A Fib

34

What murmur has a regularly irregular pulse?

PVC

35

What sound radiate to the neck?

AS

36

What sound radiates to the axilla?

MR

37

What sound radiate to the back?

PS

38

What disease has a boot-shaped xray?

Right ventricle hypertrophy

39

What disease has a banana shaped xray?

IHSS

40

What disease has an egg shaped xray?

Transposition of the great arteries

41

What disease has a snowman shaped xray?

Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return

42

What disease has a "3" shaped xray?

Coarctation of the aorta

43

What is Osler-Weber-Rendu?

AVM in lung, gut, CNS => sequester platelets => telangiectasias

44

What is Von Hippel-Lindau?

AVM in head, retina => renal cell CA risk

45

When do valves makes noise?

When valves close

46

What valves make noise during sytole?

mitral and tricuspid

47

What murmur occurs during systole?

Holosystolic, ejection murmur or click

48

What are the holosystolic murmurs?

TR, MR or VSD

49

What are the systolic ejection murmur?

AS, PS, or HCM

50

What valves make noise during diastole?

Aortic and pulmonic

51

What are the diastolic murmur?

Blowing, Rumbling

52

What are the diastolic blowing murmurs?

AR or PR

53

What are the diastolic rumbling murmus?

TS or MS

54

What are the continuous murmurs?

PDA or AVMs

55

What has a friction rub while breathing?

Pleuritis

56

What has a friction rub when holding breath?

Pericarditis

57

What does a mid-systolic click tell you?

Mitral Valve Prolapse

58

What does an ejection click tell you?

A/P stenosis

59

What does an opening snap tell you?

M/T stenosis

60

What does S2 splitting tell you?

Normal on inspiration (b/c pulmonic valve closes later)

61

What does wide S2 splitting tell you?

Increases O2, INCREASES RV volume, or delayed pulmonic valve opening

62

What does fixed wide S2 splitting tell you?

ASD

63

What does paradoxical S2 splitting tell you?

AS (or left bundle branch block)

64

What is cor pulmonale?

Pulmonary HTN => RV failure

65

What is Eisenmenger's?

Pulmonary HTN => reverse L-R to R-L shunt

66

What is Tranposition of the great arteries?

Aorticpulmonary septum did not spiral

67

What is Tetrology of Fallot?

Overriding Aorta: aorta sits on IV septum over the VSD; pushes on PA

68

What is total anomalous pulmonary venous return?

All pulmonary veins to RA, snowman xray

69

What is Troncus Arteriosus?

Spiral membrane not develop => one A/P trunk, mixed blood

70

What is Ebstein's Anomaly?

Tricuspid prolapse, Mom's Li increases risk

71

What can Lithium do to Mom?

Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

72

What is Cinchonism?

Hearing loss, tinnitus, thrombocytopenia