Endocrinology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Endocrinology Deck (146)
1

What is Necrosis?

Non-programmed cell death = noisy, inflammation, nucleus destroyed first

2

What is Apoptosis?

Programmed cell death = quiet, no inflammation, nucleus guides it => destroyed last

3

What is Pyknosis?

Nucleus turns into blobs "pick blobs"

4

What is Karyohexis?

Nucleus fragments

5

What is Karyolysis?

Nucleus dissolves

6

What is somatotrope?

GH

7

What is a Gonadotrope?

LH, FSH

8

What is a Thyrotrope?

TSH

9

What is a Corticotrope?

ACTH

10

What is a Lactotrope?

PRL

11

What receptors do protein hormones use?

Cell membrane receptors

12

What receptors do steroid hormone use?

Nuclear membrane receptors

13

What are the steroid hormones?

"PET CAD"

*Thyroid hormone acts like a steroid

Progesterone
E2
Testosterone
Cortisol
Aldo
vit D

14

What does Endocrine mean?

Secretion into blood

15

What does Exocrine mean?

Secretion into non-blood

16

What is Autocrine?

Works on itself

17

What is Paracrine?

Works on its neighbor

18

What is Merocrine?

Cell is maintained => exocytosis

19

What is Apocrine?

Apex of the cell is secreted

20

What is Holocrine?

The whole cell is secreted

21

What organs do not require insulin?

"BRICKLE"

Brain
RBC
Intestine
Cardiac, Cornea
Kidney
Liver
Exercising muscle

22

What does GnRH do?

Stimulates LH, FSH

23

What does GRH do?

Stimulates GH

24

What does CRH do?

Stimulates ACTH

25

What does TRH do?

Stimulates TSH

26

What does PRH do?

Stimulates PRL

27

What does DA do?

Inhibits PRL

28

What does Somatostatin (SS) do?

Inhibits GH

29

What does ADH do?

Conserves water, vasoconstricts

30

What does oxytocin do?

Milk letdown, baby letdown

31

What does GH do?

IGF-1 release from liver

32

What does TSH do?

T3, T4 release from thyroid

33

What does LH do?

Testosterone release from testis, E2 and Progesterone release from ovary

34

What does FSH do?

Sperm or egg growth

35

What does PRL do?

Milk production

36

What does ACTH do?

Cortisol release from adrenal gland

37

What does MSH do?

Skin pigmentation

38

What are the stress hormones?

Epi: immediate
Glucagon: 20 min
Insulin: 30 min
ADH: 30 min
Cortisol: 2-4 hr
GH: 24hr

39

What does ADH do?

Concentrates urine

40

What is Diabetes Insipidus?

Too little ADH => urinate a lot

41

What is Central DI?

Brain not making ADH

42

What is Nephrogenic DI?

Blocks ADH receptor, can be caused by Li and Domecocycline

43

What does the Water Deprivation test tell you?

Water Deprivation => DI
*fails to concentrate urine

44

What does giving DDAVP tell you?

DDAVP => Central DI
concentrate >25%

45

What is SIADH?

Too much ADH => expand plasma volume => pee Na

46

What is the diference between DI and SIADH?

DI has dilute urine,
SIADH has concentrated urine

47

What is Psychogenic Polydipsia?

Pathologic water drinking => low plasma osmolarity

48

What does Aldosterone do?

Reabsorbs Na, secretes H+ /K+

49

What is a Neuroblastoma?

Adrenal medulla tumor in kids, dancing eyes/feet, secretes catecholamines

50

What is a Pheochromocytoma?

Adrenal medulla tumor in adult's, 5P's

51

What does zona glomerulosa make?

Aldosterone "salt"

52

What does Zona Fasiculata make?

Cortisol "sugar"

53

What does Zona Reticularis make?

Androgens "sex"

54

What is Conn's syndrome?

High Aldo (tumor), Captopril test makes it worse

55

What does ANP do?

Inhibits Aldo, dilates renal artery (afferent arteriole)

56

What does Calcitonin do?

Inhibits osteoclasts => low serum Ca+2

57

What is MEN I?

"Wermer's": Pancreas, Pituitary, Parathyroid adenoma (high gastrn) "PPP"

58

What is MEN II?

"Sipple's": Pheo, Medullary thyroid cancer, PTH

59

What is MEN III?

"MEN IIb": Pheo, Medullary thyroid cancer, Oral/GI neuromas

60

What does CCK do?

Gallbladder contraction, bile release

61

What does Cortisol do?

Gluconeogenesis by proteolysis=>thin skin

62

What is Addison's disease?

Autoimmune destruction of adrenal cortex => hyperpigmentation, ^ACTH

63

What is Waterhouse Friderichsen?

Adrenal Hemorrhage

64

What is Cushings syndrome?

High cortisol (pituitary tumor or adrenal tumor or small cell lung CA)

65

What is Cushing's disease?

High ACTH (pituitary tumor)

66

What is Nelson's syndrome?

Hyperpigmentation after adrenalectomy

67

If the low dose dexamenthasone test suppresses, what does that tell you?

Normal, obese, or depressed

68

If the low dose dexamenthasone test does not suppress, what does that tell you?

Cushing's => do high dose test

69

if the high dose dexamenthasone test suppresses, what does that tell you?

Pituitary tumor=> ACTH (call brain surgeon)

70

if the high-dose dexamenthasone test does not suppress, what does that tell you?

Adrenal adenoma=> Cortisol (call general surgeon)

Small cell lung cancer=> ACTH (call thoracic surgeon)

71

What are the survival hormone?

Cortisol: permissive under stress
TSH: permissive under normal

72

What does Epinephrine do?

Gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis

73

What does Erythropoietin do?

Makes RBCs

74

What does Gastrin do?

Stimulates parietal cells => IF, H+

75

What does Growth Hormone do?

Growth, sends somatomedin to growth plates, gluconeogenesis by proteolysis.

76

What is a Pygmie?

No somatomedin receptors

77

What is Achondroplasia=Laron Dwarf?

Abnormal FGF receptors in extremities

78

What is a Midget?

lower somatomedin receptor sensitivity

79

What is a Acromegaly?

Adult bones stretch "my hat doesn't fit", coarse facial features, large furrowed tongue, deep husky voice, jaw protrussion, ^IGF-1b/c of GH tumor

80

What is Gigantism?

childhood acromegaly

81

What does GIP do?

Enhances insulin action=> post-prandial hypoglycemia

82

What does Glucagon do?

Gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, lipolysis, ketogenesis

83

What does Insulin do?

Pushes glucose into cells

84

What is Type I DM?

Anti-islet cell Ab, GAD Ab, Coxsackie B, low insulin, DKA, polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia

85

What is Type II DM?

Insulin receptor insensitivity, high insulin, HONK coma, acanthosis nigricans

86

How does DKA present?

Kussmaul respirations

87

What is the Dawn phenomenon?

Morning hyperglycemia 2 to GH

88

What is the Somogyi Effect?

Morning hyperglycemia 2o to evening hypoglycemia

89

What is Factitious Hypoglycemia?

Insulin injection (^ insulin, lowers C-peptide)

90

What is an Insulinoma?

Tumor (^insulin, ^Cpeptide)

91

What is Erythrasma?

Rash in skin folds, coral red wood's lamp

92

What is syndrome x= metabolic syndrome?

"Pre DM" => HTN, dyslipedemia, hyperinsulinemia, acanthosis nigricans

93

What are foot ulcer risk factors?

DM/Glycemic control
Male smoker
Bony abnormalities
Previous ulcers

94

What conditions cause weight gain?

Obesity
Hypothyroidism
Depression
Cushings
Anasarca

95

What does Motilin do?

Stimulates segmentation (1o peristalsis, MMC)

96

What does Oxytocin do?

Milk ejection, baby ejection

97

What does PRL do?

Milk production

98

What does PTH do?

Chews up bone

99

What does Vit D do?

Builds bone

100

What do parathyroid chief cells secrete?

PTH

101

What do stomach chief cells secrete?

Pepsin

102

What is the difference between Norepinephrine and Epinephrine?

NE: Neurotransmitter
Epi: Hormone

103

What is 1o hyperparathyroidism?

Parathyroid adenoma

104

What is 2o hyperparathyroidism?

Renal failure

105

What is Familial Hypocalciuria Hypercalcemia?

lowers Ca excretion

106

What if both serum Ca and PO4 decrease?

Vit D deficiency

107

What if serum Ca and PO4 change in opposite directions?

PTH problem
High Ca => hyper PTH
Low Ca=> hypoPTH

108

What is the most common cause of 1o hypoparathyroidism?

Thyroidectomy

109

What is Pseudohypoparathyroidism?

Bad kidney PTH receptor, decreases urinary cAMP

110

What is Pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism?

G protein defect no Ca+2 problem

111

What is Hungry Bone syndrome?

Remove PTH -> bone sucks in Ca+2

112

What does Secretin do?

Secretion of bicarb, inibit gastrin, tighten pyloric sphincter

113

What does Somatostatin do?

Inhibits secretin, motilin, CCK

114

What do T3 and T4 do?

Growth, differentiation

115

What disease has Exophthalmos?

Grave's

116

What disease has Enophthalmos?

Horner's

117

What are the Hyperthyroid disease?

Grave's
DeQuervain's
Silent thyroiditis
Plummer's
Jod-Basedow

118

Grave's

Exophthalmos, peritibial myxedema, TSHr Ab

119

DeQuervain's

Viral, painful jaw

120

Silen thyroiditis

Post-partum

121

Plummer's

Benign adenoma, old person

122

Jod-Basedow

Transient hyperthyroidism due to ^ I

123

What are the Hypothyroid disease?

Hashimotos
Reidel Struma
Cretin
Euthyroid sick syndrome
Wolff-Chaikoff

124

Hashimoto's

Antimicrosomal Ab=TPO Ab

125

Reidel's struma

Woody neck

126

Cretin

Freaky features, hypothyroid Mom and Baby

127

Euthyroid sick syndrome

Low T3, syndrome

128

Wolff-Chaikoff

Transient hypothyroidism

129

What is Plummer's syndrome?

Hyperthyroid adenoma

130

What is Plummer-Vinson syndrome?

Esophageal webs

131

What does Testosterone do?

Makes external male genitalia

132

What does Mullerian Inhibiting Factor do?

Makes internal male genitalia

133

What do TPO and Thymosin do?

Help T cells mature

134

What does VIP do?

Inhibits secretin, motilin, CCK

135

How doesa VIPoma present?

Watery diarrhea

136

How does a SSoma present?

Constipation

137

What are the hormones with disulfide bonds?

"PIGI"

PRL
Insulin
GH
Inhibin

138

Which hormones have the same alpha subunits?

LH, FSH
TSH
B-HCG

139

What hormones produce acidophils?

"GAP"

GH
PRL

140

What hormonones produce basophils?

"B FLAT"

FSH
LH
ACTH
TSH

141

Signaling Pathway of cAMP

FLAT ChAMP

FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH, CRH, hCG, ADH (V2 receptor), MSH, PTH, calcitonin, GHRH, glucagon

142

Signaling Pathway of cGMP

* Think Vasodilators*

ANP, BNP, NO (EDRF)

143

Signaling Pathway of IP3

GOAT HAG

GnRH, Oxytocin, ADH, (v1 receptor), TRH, Histamine (H1 receptor), Angiotensin II, Gastrin, Vasopressin?*

144

Signaling Pathway of Intracellular receptor (steroid receptor)

VETTT CAP

Vit D, Estrogen, Testosterone, T3/T4, Cortisol, Aldosterone, Progesterone

145

Signaling Pathway Intrinsic tyrosine kinase

MAP kinase pathway (think growth factors)

Insulin, IGF-1, FGF, PDGF, EGF

146

Signaling pathways of Receptor associated tyrosine kinase

JAK/STAT pathway (Think acidophils and cytokines)

PIGGLET

Prolactin, Immunomodulators (e.g. cytokines Il2, IL 6, IFN), GH, G-CSF, Erytropoietin, Thromobopoietin