Gynecology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Gynecology Deck (86)
1

What does the Seminal Vesicle give to sperm?

Food (fructose) and clothes (semen)

2

What do the Bulbourethral =Cowper´s gland secrete?

Bicarbonate (neutraliza lactobacilli)

3

What does the Prostate Secrete?

"The prostate HAZ it"

Hyaluronidase
Acid Phosphatase
Zinc

4

What is the Capacitation reaction?

Zn used to peel semen off

5

What is the Acrosomal reaction?

Sperms release enzyme to eat corona radiata

6

What is the Crystalization Reaction?

Wall formed after 1 sperm enters (to prevent polyspermy)

7

Where does the testosterone come from?

Adrenal gland and testicles

8

Where does DHT come from?

Testicles (at puberty)

9

What is a Pseudohermaphrodite?

External genitalia problem

10

What is a True Hemaphrodite?

Internal genitalia problem => has both sexes

11

What is a Female Hemaphrodite?

Impossible b/c the default is female

12

What is a Female Pseudohemaphrodite?

XX with low 21 -OHase => high testosterone

13

What is male Hermaphrosite?

XY with no MIF

14

What is a male Pseudohermaphrodite?

XY that has low 17-OHase => low testosterone

15

What is Hirsutism?

Hairy

16

What is Virilization?

Man-like

17

What is testicular Feminization = Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome?

Bad DHT receptor -> XY w/blind pouch vagina

18

What is McCun-Albright?

Precocious sexual development, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia "whorls of CT", "Coast of Maine", pigmented skin macules

19

What is Cryptochordism?

Testes never descend => sterility after 15 months seminomas

20

Which stage of menstrual cycle has the highest estrogen levels?

Follicular stage (has proliferative endothelium)

21

What stage of the menstrual cycle has the highest temperature?

Ovulatory stage

22

What stage of the menstrual cycle has the highest progesterone level?

Luteal stage (has secretory endothelium)

23

What form of estrogen is highest at menopause?

E1: Estrone (made by fat)

24

What form of estrogen is highest in middle age females?

E2: Estradiol (made by ovaries)

25

What form of estrogen is highest at pregnancy?

E3: Estriol (made by placenta)

26

What states have increased estrogen?

Pregnancy, liver failure, p450 inhibition, obesity

27

What is Adenomyosis?

Growth of endometrium -> myometrium, enlarged "boggy" uterus w/cystic areas

28

What does DES taken by mom cause in her daughter?

Adenomyosis -> menorrhagia
Clear cell CA of vagina
Recurrent abortions

29

What is Kallman's syndrome?

No GnRH, anosmia (can't smell)

30

What is Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome?

^ Cysts: no ovulation -> no progesterone
(^ endometrial CA) -> can't inhibit LH, obese, hairy, acne

31

What is Savage's syndrome?

Ovarian resistance to FSH/LH

32

What is Turner's Syndrome (XO)?

High FSH, low E2, ovarian dysgenesis

33

What does the progesterone challenge test tell you?

Bleeds=> she has estrogen
Not bleed=> she has no E2 or ovaries
^FSH -> Ovary problem
Low FSH -> pituitary problem

34

What is Sheehan syndrome?

Post-partum hemorrhage-> pituitary, hyperplasia infarcts -> no lactation

35

What is Asherman's syndrome?

Previous D&C ->uterine scars

36

What is Oligomenorrhea?

Too few periods

37

What is Polymenorrhea?

Too many periods

38

What is the most common cause of post coital vaginal bleding?

Cervical cancer

39

What is the most common cause of vaginal bleeding in post menopause women?

Endometrial cancer

40

What is. Chronic Pelvic Pain?

Endometriosis until proven otherwise

41

What is dysfunctional uterine bleeding?

Diagnosis of exclusion, usually due to anovulation

42

What is dysmenorrhea?

PGF causes painful menstrual cramps (teenagers miss school/work)

43

What is Endometriosis?

Painful cyclical heavy menstrual bleeding=> "powder burns, chocolate cysts" due to ectopic endometrial tissue

44

What is kleine regnum?

Scant bleeding at ovulation

45

What is menorrhagia?

Heavy menstrual bleeding

46

What is Fibroids= Leiomyoma?

Benign uterus SM tumor

*Submucosal type=> bleeding
*Subserosal type=> pain

47

What is Metrorrhagia?

Bleeding or spotting in between periods

48

What is Mittelschmerz?

Pain at ovulation

49

What causes Syphilis?

Treponema pallidum (spirochete)

50

What is Herpes?

ds DNA virus

51

What is HPV?

ds DNA virus

52

What is Chlamydia?

Obligate intracellular bacteria

53

What causes Gonorrhea?

Gram - diplococcus

54

What causes Chancroid?

H.ducreyi

55

What causes Lymphogranuloma Venerum?

Chlamydia trachomatis

56

What causes Granuloma inguinale?

C. Granulomatosis

57

What causes Epididymitis?

Chlamydia

58

What is Condyloma Lata?

Flat fleshy warts, ulcerate, 2 syphilis

59

What is Condyloma Accuminata?

Verrucous "cauliflower" warts, koilocytes, HPV 6,11

60

How does Herpes present?

1 grade painful grouped vesicles on red base
2 grade painful solitary lesion

61

How does Syphilis presents?

1 grade painless chancre (1-6 wks)
2 grade rash, condyloma lata (6wks)
3 grade neuro, cardio, bone (6yrs)

62

How does Chancroid present?

Painful w/ necrotic center, Gram - rod, "school of fish" pattern

63

How does Lymphogranuloma Venerum present?

Painless ulcers-> Abscessed nodes-> genital elephantiasis

64

How does granuloma inguinale present?

Spreading ulcer, donovan bodies, granulation test

65

How does Chlamydia present?

Cervicitis (yellow pus), conjunctivitis, PID

66

How does Gonorrhea present?

Palmar pustules, arthritis, urethral discomfort

67

What is Epididymitis?

Unilateral scrotal pain decreased by support

68

What causes. Congenital blindness?

CMV

69

What causes neonatal blindness?

Chlamydia

70

What is Lichen simplex chronicus?

Raised with lesions, chronic scratching

71

What is Lichen sclerosis?

Paperlike vulva, itching, cancer risk

72

What is Hidradenoma?

Sweat glands cysts

73

What causes non-bacterial fetal infections?

"TORCHS"

Toxoplasma: multiple ring-enhancing lesions, cat urine, parietal lobe

Others

Rubella: cataracts, hearing loss, PDA, meningoencephalitis, pneumonia, "blueberry muffin" rash

CMV: spastic diplegia of legs, hepatosplenomegaly, blindness, central calcifications

HSV-2: temporal lobe hemorrhagic encephalitis, need C/S prophylaxis

Syphilis: Rhagade's (lip fissure), saber shin legs, Hutchison's razor teeth, mulberry molars

74

What is Paget's disease of the breast?

Rash and ulcer around nipple, breast cancer

75

What is lobular carcinoma?

Cells line up single file, contralateral primary

76

What is a Comedocarcinoma?

Multiple focal areas of necrosis, "blackheads"

77

What is inflammatory carcinoma?

Infiltrates lymphatics, pulls on Cooper's ligaments, "peau d'orange"

78

What is cystosarcoma phylloides?

"Exploding mushroom", firm, rubbery, moveable, good prognosis

79

What is Intraductal papilloma?

Nipple bleeding, most common breast CA

80

What is ductal carcinoma?

Worst prognosis breast cancer

81

What is Sarcoma botyroides?

Vagina cancer, ball of grapes

82

What is a Sister Mary Joseph Nodule?

Ovarian CA spread to umbilicus

83

What is Meig's Syndrome?

Pleural effusion, ovarian fibroma, ascites

84

What are the side effects of estrogen?

Weight gain, breast tenderness, nausea, HA

85

What are the side effects of progesterone?

Acne, depression, HTN

86

What is the most common cause of post coital vaginal bleeding?

Placenta Previa