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Flashcards in Neurology Deck (52)
1

What is the central nervous system?

Brain and spinal cord; oligodendrocytes

2

What is the peripheral nervous system?

Everything else; Schwann cells

3

What is the autonomic nervous system?

Automatic stuff

4

What is the somatic nervous system?

Moving your muscles

5

What is the parasympathetic system?

Rest and Digest = slows stuff down

6

How does the parasympathetic system behave?

DUMBBELS

Diarrhea
Urination
Miosis "constrict"
Bradycardia
Bronchoconstrict
Erection "point"
Lacrimation
Salivation

7

What is the sympathetic system?

Fight or Flight= speeds stuff up

8

How does the sympathetic system behave?

Opposite of Parasympathetic

Constipation
Urinary retention
Mydriasis "eyes wide with fright"
Tachycardia
Bronchodilate
Ejaculation "shoot"
Xerophthalmia (dry eyes)
Xerostoma (dry mouth)

9

What is Cushings triad?

HTN, bradycardia, irregular breathing

10

What is Budd-Chiari?

Hepatic Vein obstruction

11

What is Arnold-Chiari?

Foramen magnum obstruction

12

What is anencephaly?

Notochord did not make contact with brain = only have medulla

13

What is an Encephalocele?

Brain tissue herniation

14

What is a Dandy Walker malformation?

No cerebellum, distended 4th/ lateral ventricles

15

What is an Arnold-Chiari malformation?

Herniation of cerebellum through foramen magnum

Type I: cerebellar tonsils (asymptomatic)
Type II: cerebellar vermis / medulla => hydrocephalus, syringomyelia (loss of pain/temp)

16

What is Spina bifida occulta?

Covered by skin w/tuft of hair

17

What is Spina bifida aperta?

Has opening (high AFP)

18

What is a Meningocele?

Sacral pocket w/ meninges in it

19

What is a Meningomyelocele?

Sacral pocket w/meninges and nerves in it

20

What is a Open angle glaucoma?

Overproduction of fluid => painless ipsilateral dilated pupil, gradual tunnel vision, optic disc cupping

21

What is Closed Angle Glaucoma?

Obstruction of canal of Schlemm => sudden onset, pain, emergency

22

What are the Watershed areas?

Hippocampus, aplenic flexure

23

What bug loves the frontal lobe?

Rubella

24

What bug loves the temporal lobe?

HSV

25

What bug loves the parietal lobe?

Toxoplasma

26

What bug loves the hippocampus?

Rabies

27

What bug loves the posterior fossa?

TB

28

What bug loves the DCML tract?

Treponema

29

How do migraines present?

Aura, photophobia, numbness and tingling, throbbing HA, nausea

30

How do tension headaches present?

"band like" pain starts in posterior neck, worse as day progresses, sleep disturbances

31

How do cluster headaches present?

Rhinorrhea, unilateral orbital pain, suicidal, facial flushing, worse with lying down

32

How does temporal arteritis present?

Pain with chewing, blind in one eye

33

How does trigeminal neuralgia present?

Sharp, shooting face pain

34

What are the 2 kinds of partial seizures?

Simple (aware), Complex (not aware)

35

What are the3 kinds of generalized seizures?

Tonic-Clonic "Grand mal"
Absence "Petit mal"
Status Epilepticus

36

How does an epidural hematoma present?

Intermittent consciousness, "lucid interval"

37

How does a subdural hematoma present?

Headache 4wks after trauma, elderly (loose brain)

38

How does a subarachnoid hemorrhage present?

"Worst headache of my life", h/o berry aneurysm

39

What is an Astrocytoma?

Rosenthal fibers, #1 in kids w/ occipital headache

40

What is an Ependymoma?

Perivascular Rosettes, in 4th ventricle, hydrocephalus

41

What is a Craniopharyngioma?

Motor oil biopsy, tooth enamel, Rathke's pouch, ADH problem, bitemporal hemianopsia, supra tentorial..CHILDREN!!!!

42

What is Glioblastoma multiforme?

GRADE 4 Astrocytoma
Pseudopalisading, necrosis, worst prognosis, intralesional hemorrhage

Most common in adults

43

What is Hemangioblastoma?

Cerebellum, von Hippel Lindau

44

What is Medulloblastoma?

Pseudorosettes (Homer wright rosette) , compresses brain (4th ventricle) , early morning vomiting

Children

45

What is a Meningioma?

Parasagittal, psammomma bodies, whorling pattern, best prognosis

46

What are the most common places to metastasize to the brain?

From lung, breast, skin, see at white-grey junction

47

What is an Oligodendroglioma?

Fried egg appearance, nodular calcification

48

What is a Pinealoma?

Loss of upward gaze, loss of circadian rhythms=> precocious puberty

49

What is Schwannoma?

CN8 tumor, unilateral deafness

50

What is a Neurofibromatosis?

Cafe au lait spots (hyperpigmentation => peripheral nerve tumors, axillary freckle

Type 1 "Von Recklinghausen's": Peripheral (Chr #17), optic glioma, Lisch nodules, scoliosis
Type 2 "Acoustic neuroma": Central (Chr#22), cataracts, bilateral deafness

51

What is Sturge-Weber?

Port wine stain big purple spot on forehead, angioma of retina

52

What is Tuberous Sclerosis?

Ash leaf spots (hypopigmentation, 1 brain tumors, Heart rhabdomyomas, Renal angiomiolipoma, Shagreen spots (leathery)