Flashcards in Neurology Deck (52)
What is the central nervous system?
Brain and spinal cord; oligodendrocytes
What is the peripheral nervous system?
Everything else; Schwann cells
What is the autonomic nervous system?
What is the somatic nervous system?
Moving your muscles
What is the parasympathetic system?
Rest and Digest = slows stuff down
How does the parasympathetic system behave?
What is the sympathetic system?
Fight or Flight= speeds stuff up
How does the sympathetic system behave?
Opposite of Parasympathetic
Mydriasis "eyes wide with fright"
Xerophthalmia (dry eyes)
Xerostoma (dry mouth)
What is Cushings triad?
HTN, bradycardia, irregular breathing
What is Budd-Chiari?
Hepatic Vein obstruction
What is Arnold-Chiari?
Foramen magnum obstruction
What is anencephaly?
Notochord did not make contact with brain = only have medulla
What is an Encephalocele?
Brain tissue herniation
What is a Dandy Walker malformation?
No cerebellum, distended 4th/ lateral ventricles
What is an Arnold-Chiari malformation?
Herniation of cerebellum through foramen magnum
Type I: cerebellar tonsils (asymptomatic)
Type II: cerebellar vermis / medulla => hydrocephalus, syringomyelia (loss of pain/temp)
What is Spina bifida occulta?
Covered by skin w/tuft of hair
What is Spina bifida aperta?
Has opening (high AFP)
What is a Meningocele?
Sacral pocket w/ meninges in it
What is a Meningomyelocele?
Sacral pocket w/meninges and nerves in it
What is a Open angle glaucoma?
Overproduction of fluid => painless ipsilateral dilated pupil, gradual tunnel vision, optic disc cupping
What is Closed Angle Glaucoma?
Obstruction of canal of Schlemm => sudden onset, pain, emergency
What are the Watershed areas?
Hippocampus, aplenic flexure
What bug loves the frontal lobe?
What bug loves the temporal lobe?
What bug loves the parietal lobe?
What bug loves the hippocampus?
What bug loves the posterior fossa?
What bug loves the DCML tract?
How do migraines present?
Aura, photophobia, numbness and tingling, throbbing HA, nausea
How do tension headaches present?
"band like" pain starts in posterior neck, worse as day progresses, sleep disturbances
How do cluster headaches present?
Rhinorrhea, unilateral orbital pain, suicidal, facial flushing, worse with lying down
How does temporal arteritis present?
Pain with chewing, blind in one eye
How does trigeminal neuralgia present?
Sharp, shooting face pain
What are the 2 kinds of partial seizures?
Simple (aware), Complex (not aware)
What are the3 kinds of generalized seizures?
Tonic-Clonic "Grand mal"
Absence "Petit mal"
How does an epidural hematoma present?
Intermittent consciousness, "lucid interval"
How does a subdural hematoma present?
Headache 4wks after trauma, elderly (loose brain)
How does a subarachnoid hemorrhage present?
"Worst headache of my life", h/o berry aneurysm
What is an Astrocytoma?
Rosenthal fibers, #1 in kids w/ occipital headache
What is an Ependymoma?
Perivascular Rosettes, in 4th ventricle, hydrocephalus
What is a Craniopharyngioma?
Motor oil biopsy, tooth enamel, Rathke's pouch, ADH problem, bitemporal hemianopsia, supra tentorial..CHILDREN!!!!
What is Glioblastoma multiforme?
GRADE 4 Astrocytoma
Pseudopalisading, necrosis, worst prognosis, intralesional hemorrhage
Most common in adults
What is Hemangioblastoma?
Cerebellum, von Hippel Lindau
What is Medulloblastoma?
Pseudorosettes (Homer wright rosette) , compresses brain (4th ventricle) , early morning vomiting
What is a Meningioma?
Parasagittal, psammomma bodies, whorling pattern, best prognosis
What are the most common places to metastasize to the brain?
From lung, breast, skin, see at white-grey junction
What is an Oligodendroglioma?
Fried egg appearance, nodular calcification
What is a Pinealoma?
Loss of upward gaze, loss of circadian rhythms=> precocious puberty
What is Schwannoma?
CN8 tumor, unilateral deafness
What is a Neurofibromatosis?
Cafe au lait spots (hyperpigmentation => peripheral nerve tumors, axillary freckle
Type 1 "Von Recklinghausen's": Peripheral (Chr #17), optic glioma, Lisch nodules, scoliosis
Type 2 "Acoustic neuroma": Central (Chr#22), cataracts, bilateral deafness
What is Sturge-Weber?
Port wine stain big purple spot on forehead, angioma of retina