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Flashcards in Biochem Deck (170)
1

What is the most common intracellular buffer?

Protein

2

What is the most common extracellular buffer?

Bicarbonate

3

What is a Zwitterion?

A molecule with one negative and one positive end

4

What is the isoelectric point?

The pH at which there is not net charge

5

What is the rare limiting enzyme in Glycolisis?

PFK-1 (phospho fructokinase 1)

6

What is the rate limiting enzyme in Gluconeogenesis?

Pyruvate carboxylase

7

What is the rate limiting enzyme in the HMP shunt?

G-6PD (Glucose - 6 -phosphate dehydrogenase)

8

What is the rate limiting enzyme in Glycogenesis?

Glycogen synthase

9

What is the rate limiting enzyme in Glycogenolysis?

Glycogen phosphorylase

10

What is the rate limiting enzyme in Fatty Acid synthesis?

AcCoA carboxylase

11

What is the rate limiting enzyme in B-oxidation?

CAT-1

12

What is the rate limiting enzyme in cholesterol synthesis?

HMG CoA reductase

13

What is the rate limiting enzyme in Ketogenosis?

HMG CoA synthase

14

What is the rate limiting enzyme in Purine synthesis?

PRPP synthase

15

What is the rate limiting enzyme in Pyrimidine synthesis?

Asp transcarbamoylase

16

What is the rate limiting enzyme in TCA cycle?

Isocitrate dehydrogenase

17

What is the rate limiting enzyme in the urea cycle?

CPS I

18

What is the rate limiting enzyme in heme synthesis?

delta-ALA-synthase

19

What are the catabolic pathways that create energy?

"ABC"
Acetyl-CoA production
b-oxidation
citric acid cycle

20

What are the anabolic pathways that store energy?

"EFGH"
ER
Fatty Acid synthesis
Glycolysis
HMP shunt

21

What are the anabolic + catabolic pathways?

"HUG"
Heme synthesis
Urea cycle
Gluconeogenesis

22

What does an isomerase do?

creates an isomer

23

What does an epimerase do?

Creates an epimer, which differs around 1 chiral carbon

24

What does a mutase do?

Moves sidechain from one carbon to another (intrachain)

25

What does a transferase do?

Moves sidechain from one substrate to another (interchain)

26

What does a Kinase do?

Phosphorylates using ATP

27

What does Phosphorylase do?

Phosphorylates using Pi

28

What does Carboxylase do?

Forms C-C bonds (w/ ATP and biotin)

29

What does a Synthase do?

Consumes 2 substrates

30

What does Synthetase do?

Consumes 2 substrates, uses ATP

31

What does a phosphatase do?

Breaks phosphate bond

32

What does a Hydrolaxe do?

Breaks a bond with water

33

What does a Lyase do?

Cuts C-C bonds w/ATP

34

What does dehydrogenase do?

Removes H with a cofactor

35

What does a Thio do?

Breaks S bond

36

What is Diffusion>

From high to low concentration

37

What is active transport?

Goes against concentration gradient

38

What is zero-order kinetics?

metabolism independent of concentration

39

What is first order kinetics?

Constant drug percentage metabolism over time, depends on drug concentration

40

What is Efficacy?

Max effect regardless of dose (lower w/non competitive antagonist)

41

What effects efficacy?

Vmax

42

What is Potency?

Amount of drug needed to produce effect (lower w/ comp antagonist)

43

What affects Potency?

Km

44

What is Km?

Concentration of drug that produces 50% of receptors

45

What is EC50?

Concentration of drug that produces 50% of maximal response

46

What is competitive inhibition?

Fights for active site, no DeltaVmax, potency decreases

47

What is Non-competitive inhibition?

binds a regulatory site, no DeltaKm, efficacy decreases, decreases Vmax

48

What is Endothermic Reaction>

Consumes heat

49

What is Exothermic Reaction?

Gives of heat

50

What is the Peak level?

11. 4 hrs after dose (too high => decrease dose)

51

What is the Through level?

2hrs before dose (too high=> gives less often)

52

What is t1/2?

Half life, the time it takes for the body to use half of the drug ingested

53

What is von Gierke?

G-6Pase deficiency=> hypoglycemia, hepatosplenomegaly

54

What is Pompe's?

Cardiac alpha-1, 4-glucosidase deficiency => DIE early

55

What is Cori's?

Debranching enzyme deficiency =>short branches of glycogen

56

What is Anderson's?

Branching enzyme deficiency => long chains of glycogen

57

What is McArdle's?

Muscle phosphorylate deficiency=> muscle cramps w/exercise

58

What is Essential Fructosuria?

Fructokinase deficiency => excrete fructose (still have hexokinase)

59

What is Fructosemia?

"fructose intolerance" (Aldolase B deficiency) => liver damage

60

What does a Galactokinase deficiency causes?

Cataracts

61

What does Galactosemia cause?

Cataracts, mental retardation, liver damage

62

What does the Citrate shuttle do?

FA transport out of the mitochondria

63

What does the Carnitine shuttle do?

FA transport into the mitochondria

64

What lysosomal diseases have a cherry-red macula?

Tay-Sachs, Niemman Pick

65

What lysosomal diseases have a Gargoyle-face?

Gaucher's, Hurler's

66

What is Tay-Sach's?

Hexosaminidase A deficiency=> blindness, incoordination, dementia

67

What is Sandhoff's?

Hexosaminidase A/B deficiency

68

What is Gaucher's?

Glucocerebrosidase deficiency=> wrinkled tissue MP, bone pain

69

What is Niemman's Pick?

Sphingomyelinase deficiency=> zebra bodies

70

What is Fabry's?

alpha-galactosidase deficiency=> corneal clouding, attacks baby's kidneys, x-linked

71

What is Krabbe's?

b-galactosidase deficiency=> globoid bodies

72

What is Metachromatic Leukodystrophy?

Arylsulfatase deficiency=> childhood MS

73

What is Hunter's?

Iduronidase deficiency, milder form

74

What is Hurler's?

Iduronnidase deficiency, worse form

75

What is Lesch-Nyhan?

(HGPRT deficiency) => gout, neuropathy, self-mutilation

76

What does white diaper crystals suggest?

Excess orotic acid

77

What does biotin donate methyl groups for?

Carboxylation

78

What does THF donate methyl group for?

Nucleotides

79

What does SAM donate methyl groups fpr?

All other reactions

80

What is the difference b/w heterochromatin and euchromatin?

Heterochromatin=tightly coiled
Euchromatin= loose (10nm fibers)

81

What are the purines?

A, G

82

What are the pyrimidines?

C,U,T

83

What is a silent mutation?

Changes leave te same amino acid

84

What is a point mutation?

Changes 1 base

85

What is a transition?

Changes 1 purine to another purine

86

What is a transversion?

Changes 1 purine to a pyrimidine

87

What is a frameshift mutation?

Insert or delete 1-2 bases

88

What is a missense mutation?

Mistaken amino acid substitution

89

What is a nonsense mutation?

Early stop codon

90

What does a Southern blot detect?

DNA

91

What does a Northern blot detect?

RNA

92

What does a Western blot detect?

Protein

93

What are the essential amino acids?

"PVT TIM HALL"

Phe
Val
Trp
Thr
Ile
Met
His
Arg
Leu
Lys

94

What are the essential fatty acids?

Linolenic
Linoleic

95

What are the acidic amino acids?

Asp, Glu

96

What are the basic amino acids?

Lys, Arg

97

What are the sulfur-containing amino acids?

Cys, Met

98

What are the O-bond amino acids?

Ser, Thr, Tyr

99

What are the N-bond amino acids?

Asn, Gln

100

What are the branched amino acids?

Leu, Ile, Val

101

What are the aromatic amino acids?

Phe, Tyr, Trp

102

What are the smallest amino acid?

Gly

103

What are the ketogenic amino acids?

Lys, Leu

104

What are the glucogenic + ketogenic amino acids?

"PITT"
Phe, Iso, Thr, Trp

105

What are the glucogenic amino acids?

all the rest

106

What amino acids does Trypsin cut?

Lys, Arg

107

What amino acids does B-ME cut?

Cys, Met

108

What amino acids does Acid Hydrolysis denature?

Asn, Gln

109

What amino acids does Chymotripsin cut?

Phe, Tyr, Trp

110

What amino acid turns yellow on Nurhydrin reaction?

Pro

111

What does Carboxypeptidase cut?

Left of any amino acid on the carboxy terminal

112

What does Aminopeptidase cut?

Right of N terminus

113

What does CNBr cut?

Right of Met

114

What does Mercaptoethanol cut?

Right of Cys, Met

115

What does Elastase cut?

Right of Gly, Ala, ser

116

What does Trypsin cut?

Arg, Lys

117

What does Chymotrypsin cut?

Phe, Tyr, Trp

118

What does alpha1-AT do?

Inhibits trypsin from getting loose

119

What is PKU?

No Phe -> Tyr (via Phe Hydroxylase): Nutrasweet sensitivity, mental retardation, pale, blond hair, blue eyes, musty odor

120

What is Albinism?

No Tyr-> Melanin (via Tyrosinase)

121

What is Maple Syrup Urine disease?

Defective metabolism of branched aa (Leu, Iso, Val) => aa leak out

122

What is Homocystinuria?

No Homocysteine -> Cys: "COLA" stones
Cystine, Ornithine, Lysine, Arginine

123

What is Pellagra?

Niacin deficiency
Dermatitis, Diarrhea, Dementia, Death

124

What is Hartnup's?

No Trp=> Niacin + Serotonin
Presents like Pellagra
Can mimic corn-rich diet

125

What causes anterior leg bowing?

Neonatal Syphilis

126

What causes lateral leg bowing?

Rickets

127

What are the names of the B vitamins?

"The Rich Never Lie about Panning Pyrite Filled Creeks"
Vit B1=Thiamine
Vit B2=Riboflavin
Vit B3=Niacin
Vit B4=Lipoic Acid
Vit B5= Panthotenic Acid
Vit B6= Pyridoxine
Vit B9= Folate
Viy B12=Cobalamin

128

What Vit A do?

Night vision, CSF production, PTH

129

What does Vit B1 do?

Dehydrogenases, transketolase (PPP) cofactors

130

What does Vit B2 do?

FAD cofactor

131

What does Vit B3 do?

NAD cofactor

132

What does Vit B4do?

Glycolisis, no known diseases

133

What dooes Vit B5 do?

Part of Acetyl CoA, no known diseases

134

What does Vit B6 do?

Transaminase cofactor, myelin integrity

135

What does Vit B9 do?

Nuclear division

136

What does Vit B12 do?

Cofactor for HMT and MMM

137

What does Vit C do?

Collagen sythesis

138

What does Vit D do?

Mineralization of bones, teeth

139

What does Vit K do?

Clotting

140

What does Biotin do?

Carboxylation

141

What does Ca+2 do?

Neuronal function, atrial depolarization, SM contractility

142

What does Cu+2 do?

Collagen Synthesis

143

What does Fe+2 do?

Hb function, electron transport

144

What is Bronze pigmentation?

Fe deposit in skin

145

What is Bronze cirrhosis?

Fe deposit in liver

146

What is Bronze diabetes?

Fe deposit in pancreas

147

What is Hemosiderosis?

Fe overload in bone marrow

148

What is Hemochromatosis?

Fe deposit in organs

149

What does Mg+2 do?

PTH and kinase cofactor

150

What does Zn +2 do?

Taste buds, hair, sperm function

151

What does Cr do?

Insulin fucntion

152

What does Mb do?

Purine breakdown (xanthine oxidase)

153

What does Mn do?

Glycolysis

154

What does Se do?

Heart function => dilated cardiomyopathy

155

What does Sn do?

Hair

156

What is Kawashiorkor?

Malabsoprtion, big belly (ascites), protein deficiency

157

What is Marasmus?

Starvation, skinny, calorie deficiency

158

What does the Pre label send stuff to?

ER

159

What does the Pro label send stuff to?

Golgi

160

Where does the mannose-6-p send stuff to?

Lysosome

161

Where does the N-terminal sequence send stuff to?

Mitochondria

162

What are the 4 types of collagen?

Strong, Slippery, Bloody, BM
Type I: skin, bone
Type II: Connective tissue, aqueous humor
Type III: Arteries
Type IV: Basement membrane

163

How does Scleroderma present?

Tight skin

164

How does Ehlers Danlos present?

Hyperstretchable skin

165

How does Marfans presents?

Hyperextensible joints, arachnodactyly, wing span longer than height, aortic root dilatation, aortic aneurysm, mitral valve prolapse, dislocated lens from bottom of eye -> look up

166

How does Homocystinuria present?

Dislocated lens from top -> look down

167

How does Kinky hair disease present?

Hair looks like copper wire (Cu deficiency)

168

How does Scurvy present?

Bleeding gums, bleeding hair follicles

169

How does Takayasu arteritis present?

Asian female with very weak pulse

170

How does Osteogenesis Imperfecta present?

Shattered bones, blue sclera