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Flashcards in cardio Deck (32):
1

cannon a-wave

3rd degree block
A and V contract together, so atrial pressure sky-rockets

2

c-v wave

mitral regurg
(no x because when atria relax, the back flow of blood form the ventricles keeps the pressure up)

3

flat y

cardiac tamponade
(as blood passively leaves A into V, pressure in A should decrease, but ventricular filling pushes pericardial fluid around A and increases A pressure)

4

Sharp y-descent

constrictive pericarditis
(atria start emptying but ventricle can't expand very much so puts back pressure on atria quickly)

5

Left sternal boarder: which sounds

Aortic regurg
Pulonary regurg
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

6

holosystolic:
crescendo-decrescendo =
harsh =
high-pitched and blowing =

crescendo-decrescendo = Aortic stenosis
harsh = VSD
high-pitched and blowing = MR/TR

7

high-pitched and blowing murmurs

systolic = TR/MR
diastolic = AR/PR

8

mid systolic click with late crescendo murmur

MVP

MC valve lesion
best @ apex
via myxomatous degeneration (1' or 2' to EDS or marfans), rheumatic fever, chordae rupture (post-MI)
Predisposes to IE (damaged valve)

9

Phase 2 of myosin AP

Ca in via L-type VG ca++ channels
causes CICR from SR

10

Phase 4 of pacemaker cells

controlled by funny Na+ channels
they control the HR
ACh and adenosine decrease opening .: decrease HR
catecholamines increase opening .: increase HR

[different than inward Na+ channels which are permanently inactivated in pacemaker cells via higher RMP (-70 vs. -85)]

11

Torsades ppt factors

congenital: romero-ward, jervell and lange-nielsen - K+ ion channel defects, risk of SCD​

Low K+, Mg++, Ca++

Drugs:

Antiarrytmics (Ia + III - K+ blockers)
antiBiotics (macro)
antiCychotics (haloperidol)
antiDepressants (TCA)
AntiEmetics (ondansetron)

12

SCD via:

Congenital torsades: romero-ward and jervell/lang-neilsen
Brugada: pseudo-RBBB and STE V1-V3
Hypertrophic caridomyopathy (b-myosin-HC)

13

speed of conduction

purkinje > atria > ventricles > AV

14

Causes of A. fib

HTN
CAD
RHD
HF
binge drinking
hyperhtyroidism

15

F-waves

a flutter

16

sawtooth

a flutter

17

irregularly irregular

a fib

18

cause of 3rd degree block

lyme

19

ANP/BNP MOA

cGMP
vasodilation (a and v)
decreased resorption of Na @ PCT
Renal aff dilation and eff constriction .: diuresis and aldosterone escape

20

ASD types:

ostium primum = more severe (assoc. with other heart condition i.e. HF)
ostium secundum = MC

21

late cyanosis, polycythemia, finger clubbing

eisenmengers via long-standing left-to-right shunt

22

differential cyanosis vs. weak/delayed lower limb pulses

differential cyanosis (blue legs) = older kids with PDA

weak/delayed lower limb pulses (brachia-femoral delay) = juxtaductal coarctation

23

diabetic mom

transposition of great vessels

24

FAS

VAD
ASD
PDA
Tetrallogy

25

Rubella

PDA
ASD
VSD
PA Stenosis

26

williams

supravalvular aortic stenosis (up past the valve)

27

q22

Tetrallogy
Truncus arteriosus

28

arteriolosclerosis histo
hyaline vs hyperplastic

hyaline = protein leak

hyperplastic = sm hyperplasia

29

coronary sinus =

where coronary blood supply enters RA
dilates with increase RAP

30

RF prizmetal

smoking
cocaine
triptans

31

Kussmal sign =

Increase JVP on inspiration (normally should decrease)
via blockage of blood flow into right heart
via constrictive pericarditis, restrictive cardiomyopathy, RA or RV tumour

32

bacillary angiomatosis vs kaposi

bacillary: bartonella, benign, PMNs
Kaposi: HHV-8, malignant, lymphocytic