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Flashcards in Resp Deck (35):
1

Causes of MetHb

sulfa
dapsone
nitrites
benzocaine

2

relation of PA to bronchus

RALS
Right = ant
Left = superior

3

Deadspace volume

1) find out the alveolar volume
VT * PECO2 = VA * PaCO2
[because P1V1 = P2V2; because PaCO2=PACO2]

2) do VT = VD + VA to find VD

Remember physiological VD = anatomical deadspace + alveolar deadspace
*alveolar dead space is NOT NOT NOT NOTNOT VA

4

@FRC, PIP =

-5
(intraalveolar P = 0)

5

Small A-V O2 gradient

cyanide poisoning (because not using the O2)
.: severe lactic acidosis
burnt almond smell

6

O2 content =

(O2 binding capacity * %saturation) + dissolved O2

7

Perfusion limited

O2 (healthy lung) * get close to diffusion in heavy exercise
CO2
N20

8

Diffusion limited

unhealthy lung (emphysema, fibrosis)
CO

9

PVR =

PVR = Ppulm atrery - Pleft atria / CO

10

AGE: PAO2 =

PAO2 = PIO2 - PaCO2/RQ
[RQ = CO2 made/O2 consumed]

use this to compare PAO2 to PaO2
if gap is big, then there may be a R-L shunt, V/Q mismatch, diffusion problem

11

exercise blood gas changes

PaO2 = SAME
PaCO2 = SAME

venous CO2 increased
venous O2 decreased

12

Bacterial superimposed infections on rhinosinutisis

s. pneumoniae

h. flu

m. catarrhalis

13

Virchow's triad

Venous stasis
Hypercoaguability
Endothelial damage

14

Inhibitors of elastase:

PMN = A1AT
macro = TIMP

15

pulsus paradoxus in:

cardiac tamponade, pericarditis, croup, asthma, OSA

16

Hypersensitiyivty pneumonitis: who, s/s, histo

farmer/bird people

s/s = dyspnea, cough, tight chest, headache

histo = type III and IV (non-caseating granulomas in alveoli)

17

pneumoconiosis complications

cor pulmonale

Caplan syndrome: RA + intrapulmonary nodules

18

lobe and pneumoconiosis

Lower = asbestos

Uppers = beryliosis, coal workers, silliosis

19

Ivory white calcified supra diaphragmatic and pleural plaques

Asbestosis

20

Job and pneumoconiosis:

- roofer, plummer, shipbuilder

- aerospace + manufacturing

- coal

- foundries, sandblasting, mines

- roofer, plummer, shipbuilder: asbestosis

- aerospace + manufacturing: berylliosis

- coal: CWP

- foundries, sandblasting, mines: sillicosis

21

ferruginou bodies

asbestosis
ogden-brown, dumbbells in alveolar septum

22

eggshell calcification of hilar LNs

Sillicosis
also risk of TB (P-L and macrophage dysfunction) and bronchogenic carcinoma

23

NRDS complications and rx complications

PDA, metabolic acidosis, necrotizing enterocolitis

Rx = R, I, B

24

PCWC in ARDS

NORMAL!!!! normal PVR but edema

25

plexiform lesions

tufts of capillaries after long term P.HTN

26

causes of 1' P.HTN

BMPR-2 inactivating mutations, long-term appetite suppressants//amphetamines/cocaine, HIV, CT disease, portal HTN, congenital heart disease, schistosomiasis

27

increase remits via:

consolidation only!!!! (pneumonia or pulmonary oedema)
also bronchial breath sounds with late inspiratory crackles

28

how do you know pleural effusion is chylothorax?

milky with high TGs

29

pancoast tumour/syndrome

invades sympathetic chain causing:
- SVC syndrome
- horners
- sensotimotor deficits
- hoarseness

30

SVC syndrome

- blockage of venous blood form from head/neck/upper limb
- MC via malignancy (pancoast) or catheter thrombosis, also mediastinal mass blocking SVC

*just remember if not hoarse, no shoulder pain, no eye problems, it is SVC alone without pan coast

31

Small cell

ACTH, SIADH, Lambert-Eaton
Amplification L-myc
Kulchinsky (small blue)
Chemo
neuroendocrine i.e. chromogrannin, synaptophysin
[carcinoid also positive for these]

32

AdenoCA

activating mutation in: KRAS, EGFR, ALK
clubbing (hypertrophic osteoarthropathy
Glandular, mucin +

33

"thickening of alveolar septa"

bronchioalveolar subtype of ACA; clara cells, good Px

34

squamous cell

cavitation
hypercalcemia (PTHrp)
Keratin pearls, intercellular bridges
ERB-B1

35

large cell

anaplastic .: surgery
pedomorphic giant cells
b-HCG