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Flashcards in Neuro Deck (85):
1

anancephaly

no forebrain
maternal T1DM

2

holoprosencephaly problem and s/s

malformation - hemispheres dont split
SHH, patau, FAS
cyclopia

3

lissencephaly

agyria

4

cape-like pain and temp loss

syringomealia (C8-T1)

5

tongue motor innervation

all XII except palatoglossus = X

6

microglial giant cells

HIV brain

7

conditoins that injure oligodendrocytes

MS
OML
Leukodystrophies (metachromatic-, adreno-)

8

fingertip sesnroy Rs

merkel = skin
ruffini = joints + objects slipping

9

meynert

Ach

10

vasogenic edema

when infarct or neoplasm destroys endotheial TJs

11

REM

via PPRF activation
every 90 minutes, increases in duration throughout night
decreased by alcohol, benzos, barbs, NE
[delta decreased by ABB too)

12

sleep N2

spindles/k-complexes
bruxisms
most time here (45%)

13

thalamus =

relay for ASCENDING information
(except olfactory)

14

LGN vs MGN

LGN = vision
MGN = hearing (input = superior olive + inferior tectum)

15

osmotic demyelination syndrome

cental pontine white matter destructions (myelinolysis)

16

Cerebellar tracts

superior = outflow contra cerebrum (purkinje cells)
middle = inflow contra cerebrum
inferior = inflow ipsi spinal cord

17

cerebellar lesions

dentate = lateral .: ipsi distal limbs (hands, fall to ipsi)
vermal/fastigial/FN = medial .: bilateral axial and proximal limb

18

intention tremmor

cerebellum

19

cerebellar s/s + anti-Yo, ant-P/Q, anti-Hu

subacute cerebellar degeneration
paraneoplastic against cerebellum

20

post-stroke pain syndrome: cause and s/s

thalamic infarct
neuropathic pain - burning/stabbing contralaterally
allodynea and dysethesia

21

lentiform output

always inhibitory!!

22

direct and indirect paths

direct = increased movement, stim by SNc D1
indirect = inhibit movement, inhib by SNc D2

23

myoclonus: s/s and cause

quick breif uncontrolled movements i.e. hiccups or jerks
indicates metabolic problem: renal or hepatic failure

24

lewy bodies

parkinsons
lewy body

25

a-synneuclein

parkinsons
lewy body

26

caudate cell death via

NDMA-R binding and glutamate toxicity

27

transcortical aphasias

repetition IN TACT

28

corpus callosum BF

MCA

29

CPP

CPP = MAP - ICP

30

Nucleus ambiguus lesion

PICA! 9 + 10 (mixed)
dysphasia, hoarse
[sensory problems of body and face]
ipsilateral horners

31

Facial nucleus lesion

AICA! 5 + 7 (mixed)

32

basilar a. lesion

locked in - blinking only

33

Berry aneurism RF

ADPKD
Ehlers danlos
old
black
smoker
HTN

34

hypertensive encephalopathy
vs. hypoxic ischemic encepthalopathy
vs. charcot-bouchard rupture
vs. hypertensive arteriolar sclerosis

HTN-E = progressive HA, non-localizing s/s. brain edema
H-I-E = global ischeima causing coma/vegetative; hippocampus first affected
CBR = see right away because bleed
HAS = lacunar infarcts, same areas as bouchard [in old people can be lobar]; cant see until 1 week (necrosis vis ischemia); via lipohyalinosis or microatheromas

35

AVM rupture

SAH

36

new changes in neuro s/s after SAH

vasospasm (or re-bleed or hydrocephalus)
vasospasm dx = dopler (cant see on CT)
rx = nimodipine

37

dx ischemic brain (stroke)

diffusion-weighted MRI = within 3-30 mins
CT = 6-24 hrs

need to ensure its not a bleed before tPA

38

1st histo sign of brain ischemia

12-48h = red neurons

39

MC site intracerebral hemmorhage

basal ganglia

40

Pseudotumour cerebri: s/s, rx

HA, obese, female, diplopia (CN 6), papiledema, vit A excess, danazol (for endometriosis), high OP
NO mental status changes

rx = acetazolamide, topirimate, weight loss, shunt, optic nerve fenestration

41

synnapse then cross

ASCENDING ONLY!
[CSTr has only 1 synnapse, in the anterior horn]

42

MS spinal cord demyelination

white matter, mostly in cervical region

43

Rx ALS

Riluzole - decreases presynnaptic glutamate release

44

tabes spinal cord

posterior column and dorsal roots

DC - lose propiroception of legs (romberg/ataxia)
DR - pain and temp (charcot)
DR - areflexia of DTRs [but no motor problem]

45

B12 problem:

subacute combined degeneration
- DC - proprioception
- CSTr - motor
- spinocerebellar - ataxia
also axonal degeneration of peripheral nerves - paresthesias

46

superior colliculi

conjugate VERTICAL gaze

47

MC secretion from pinealoma

bHCG (precocious puberty)

48

Thru optic canal:

CNII
Opthalamic artery
Retinal vein

49

thur superior orbital fissure

CN 3, 4, V1, 6
opthalamic vein
sympathetics

50

styloPHARYNGEUS

CN IX
elevates pharynx and larynx

51

Carotid body + sinus

CN IX

52

aortic arch chemo and baro--R

CN X

53

dorsal motor nucleus

ANS (PSNS) to heart, lungs, upper GI

54

CN V; which way does tongue deviate

jaw TOWARDS lesion

55

causes of CN VII palsy

idiopathic (bells)
Lyme
HSV
VZV
Tumour
sarcoidosis
DM

56

nystagmus =

Fast correction direction

57

Which side are vessels in fundoscopy?

NASAL

58

hyperopia =

far-sighted
so eyeball too short

59

peripheral vs central vision loss

peripheral = glaucoma
central = ARMD (scotomas)

60

polio

motor problem
ALSO PEC .: mcc aseptic meningitis
[picorna virus; ss+RNA, naked]

61

GFAP +

astrocytes
oligodendrocytes
ependymal cells

62

Skin tumours of NF-1 origin

Schwann .: NCC

63

acute dysphagia, dystonia, and diplopia

botulism

64

cocaine MOA

prevents reuptake of NE, 5HT, DA

65

treating anticholinesterase poisoning

atropine = body and CNS anti-muscarinic
pralidoxime = no CNS, but destroys the drug so it decreases Ach at muscarinic AND nicotinic (muscles) receptors

66

S-100 =

NCC

67

anti-VEGF: names and rx of:

Bevacizumab
Ranibizumab

Wet ARMD
Proliferative DM retinopathy

68

cherry red spot macula adult

central retinal artery occlusion

69

Nuclei in pupilary light reflex

pre-tectal nuclei
EW nuclei
ciliary ganglia

*bypass LGN because its a reflex

70

fish cause non- and deplarizing Na+ channel blocks

non-depol:
saxitoxin
tetrodotoxin

depol:
ciguatoxin
batrachotoxin

71

dementia with visual hallucinations

Lewy body dementia
[will see parkinsonian s/s later]

72

MS Dx

gold standard = MRI

also IgG oligoclonal bands in CSF

73

random GBS s/s

facial paralysis (CN 5 and 7)
autonomic dysregulation
papiledema via proteins

74

acute disseminated postinfectious enceohalitis

VZV, measles, small pox vaccine, rabies vaccine

75

CMTD

pes cavus
scoliosis
common peroneal
motor and sensory
defective production

76

Krabbe

galactocerebrosidase --> galactocerebroside + psychosine
globoid cells

77

metachromatic leukodystropht

arylsulfatase A --> sulfatides
production and destruction
ataxia and dementia

78

ALD

VLCFA
NS, testes, adrenals
X-linked

79

delayed horizontal nystagmus =

peripheral vertigo
(menieres, canal debris, CN VIII infection)

80

immediate nystagmus in any direction =

central vertigo
brainstem (CN8 nucleus) or cerebellar lesion

81

Sturge-Weber

STURGE
Somatic, stain (port-wine)
Tram-tracks (leptomeningeal angiomas)
Unilateral
Retardation
GNAQ (activating), Glaucoma
Epilepsy

82

Tuberous sclerosis

Hammartomas everywhere
AD
Renal angiomyolipomas, rhabdomyomas, mitral regurg
Ash-leaf, Shagreen
subependymal astrocytomas and ungual fibromas

83

NF-1

cafe, lisch, cutaneous
pheo
optic gliomas
NF1 = tumour suppressor

84

VHL

hemangioblastomas (cerebellum, brainstem, retina, spine)
RCC bilateral
pheo

85

NF2

bilateral acoustic neuromas
juvenile cataracts
meningiomas
ependymomas