Cardiovascular Disorders Flashcards Preview

USMLE Step Two > Cardiovascular Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular Disorders Deck (150)
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31

second degree mobitz I heart block

progressive PR lengthening until skipped QRS

asymptomatic
caused by his bundle conduction defect, drug effects (beta-blockers, digoxin, calcium channel blockers), or increased vagal tone

adjust medications, consider pacemaker if symptomatic bradycardia is present

32

second degree mobitz II heart block

randomly skipped QRS without changes in PR interval

usually asymptomatic
caused by infranodal conduction problem in bundle of his or purkinje fibers
can progress to third degree heart block

treat with ventricular pacemaker

33

third degree heart block

no relationship between P waves and QRS complexes

syncope, dizziness, hypotension
absence of conduction between atria and ventricles

treat with ventricular pacemaker and avoid medications affecting AV conduction

34

next step of management in congenital heart disease with early cyanosis

prostaglandin E

35

medication that closes PDA

indomethacin

36

6 week old infant has signs of left heart failure and EKG shows left-sided MI

anomalous origin of the left coronary artery

37

most common vasculitis

temporal arteritis

38

defects of tetrology of fallot

VSD, pulmonary stenosis, RVH, overriding aorta

39

management for DVT in patient with high likelihood of falling

IVC filter

40

management of peripheral vascular disease

smoking cessation, glucose and lipid control, exercise
cilostazol, statins, aspirin

41

indications for operating on AAA

greater than 5.5 cm
growing more than 0.5 cm in 6 months

42

mechanism of PSVT

accessory conduction pathways through AV node

43

treatment for ventricular tachycardia

hemodynamically stable: amiodarone or lidocaine
hemodynamically unstable: cardioversion

44

treatment for paroxysmal noctural dyspnea

acute: nitroglycerin
chronic: furosemide

45

drug that blocks ventricular remodeling s/p myocardial infarction

ACE-inhibitor

46

periumbilical systolic-diastolic bruit

renal artery stenosis

47

abdominal systolic bruit

more classically associated with AAA

48

blood pressure discrepancy in coarctation of the aorta

if coarctation is distal to the subclavian artery: upper extremity pressure is higher than lower extremity pressure

if coarctation is proximal to the subclavian artery: right arm pressure higher than left arm pressure

49

indications for class IA anti-arrhythmics

PSVT, Afib, Aflutter, Vtach

quinidine, procainamide

50

indications for class IB anti-arrhythmics

Vtach

lidocaine, tocainide

51

indications for class IC anti-arrhythmics

PSVT, Afib, Aflutter

flecainide, propafenone

52

indications for beta-blockers used as anti-arrhythmics

PVC, PSVT, Afib, Aflutter, Vtach

propanolol, esmolol, metoprolol

53

indications for K-channel blockers

Afib, Aflutter, Vtach (not bretylium)

amiodarone, sotalol, bretylium

54

indications for calcium channel blockers used as anti-arrhythmics

PSVT, MAT, Afib, Aflutter

verapamil, diltiazem

55

drug used in PSVT that activates K-channels and decreases intracellular cAMP

adenosine

56

first drug that should be administered when coronary artery event is suspected

aspirin to prevent platelet aggregation

57

situational syncome

autonomic dysregulation that may occur when an older man is micturating or coughing

58

treatment for prolonged QT

asymptomatic: propranolol
symptomatic: propranolol plus a DDD pacemaker (dual chamber)

59

treatment for pulseless electrical activity

initiate CPR followed by epinephrine or vasopressin

60

treament of asymptomatic young patient with no other health problems and CHADS2 score of 0

aspirin