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Flashcards in cardiovascular study guide 1 Deck (89):
1

The mineral necessary for the production of RBCs

Copper

2

Liquid part of blood containing water @ other substances (watery straw-colored)

Plasma

3

A clot within a blood vessel obstructing the flow of blood throughout eh circulatory system

Thrombus

4

Responsible for the formation of blood clots

Fibrinogen

5

Protein found in red blood cells responsible for carrying oxygen from the lungs to all other tissues of the body

Hemoglobin

6

Protein used to check for anemia

Hemoglobin

7

The stopping of blood flow

Hemostasis

8

Hemostasis can be divided into 3 Stages

1. Vascular spasms
2. Platelet plug formation
3. Coagulation

9

High or elevated blood pressure

Hypertension

10

Abnormally low blood pressure

Hypotension

11

Facts about Leukocytes

1. White blood cells
2. A colorless blood corpuscle capable of ameboid movement
3. Cheif function is to protect body against microorganisms causing disease

12

Period of relaxation of the heart

Diastole

13

Period of contraction of the heart

Systole

(Heart muscles contract and pumps blood from chambers into the arteries)

14

Widening of blood vessels that results from relaxation of the muscular walls of the vessels. (the diameter of the interior of the vessel widens)

Vasodilation

15

A person of blood group O who can donate blood to recipients of any ABO blood group

Universal Donor

16

A person with AB+ can receive blood from anyone

Universal Recipient

17

Outermost layer of a blood vessel

Tunica Adventitia (also known as Tunica Externa)

18

A compound in the liver and other tissues that prevents blood clots

Heparin

19

Largest Artery

Aorta

20

Longest Vein of Body

The Great Saphenous Vein

(Begins on medial side of foot, rises up along inner side of leg @ penetrates deep into the thigh)

21

When phagocytes engulf @ destroy the microorganisms of disease. It is enhanced by products of the immune system called antibodies.

Phagocytosis

22

A small nonnucleated disklike cytoplasmic body found in blood plasma that is derived from a megakaryocyte and promotes blood clotting.

Platelets
(also called blood platelet or thrombocyte)

23

A sudden constriction of the blood vessel causing reduction or stoppage in blood flow

Vascular Spasm

24

Specialized muscle fibers found in heart. Located in the endocardium.
Function-To relay impulses from the bundle to ventricles, causing a contraction.

Purkinje Fibers

(When electrical impulses are sent along purkinje fibers it causes ventricles to contract. The contraction produces enough force to eject blood from heart necessary for circulation)

25

One of the valves of heart postioned in top chamber.
Function-To ensure that blood flows in correct direction to the ventricle

Tricuspid Valve

26

Low RBC count

Anemia

(RBC levels drop to low, body feels tired. Most commonly associated with iron deficiency)

27

Need to promote RBC production.
Is used by RBCs to create Hemoglobin

Iron

(Iron also help transport oxygen through body)

28

Rare blood disease where bone marrow fails to produce blood cells for body.
Moderate, severe, and acute forms.
If left untreated can kill.
Caused by damage to stem cells of bone marrow.

Aplastic Anemia

29

To stop bleeding and form blood clots after injury to a blood vessel

Clotting

(also called coagulation)

30

A blood clot, air bubble, piece of fatty deposit, or other object that has been carried in the bloodstream to lodge in a blood vessel

Embolus

31

When blood lacks adequate healthy red blood cells due to insufficient iron. Without iron body can't produce enough hemoglobin

Iron Deficient Anemia
(common type)

32

A deficiency in the production of RBCs through a lack of Vitamin B12.
People with this lack the intrinsic factor (protein made in the stomach)

Pernicious Anemia

33

Severe form of hereditary anemia in which a mutated form of hemoglobin distorts the RBCs into a crescent shape and low oxygen levels. Common among African descent.

Sickle Cell Anemia

34

Where RBCs stick together forming irreversible clumps, Thus, bloodstream will be prevented from delivering oxygen to tissues.

Agglutination

35

Tiny blood vessels that pass blood from arteries into the veins. They have the thickest endothelial wall. They allow only water @ ions into their path. They are the most common capillary. They contain cells joined by tight junctions and are less leaky.

Continuous Capillaries

36

The volume of blood pumped per minute by each ventricle of the heart

Cardiac Output

37

The acidity or alkalinity of blood

Blood pH

(The pH of any fluid is the measure of the hydrogen ion (H-) concentration. pH of 7 is neutral. The lower the pH, the more acidic the blood)

38

A RBC that is typically a bioconcave disc without a nucleus
Most common type of blood cell

Erythrocytes

39

Occurs when blood flow to your heart muscle is decreased by a partial or complete blockage of your hearts arteries (coronary). The decrease in blood flow reduces your heart's oxygen supply. Can damage heart. Reduces its ability to pump efficiently. May lead to a heart attack. May cause abnormal heart rhythms

Myocardial Ischemia
(also called Cardiac Ischemia)

40

Characteristics of Arteries

1. Carry oxygenated blood away from the heart
2. Have high blood pressure flow
3. Have thick muscular walls (lots of smooth muscle)
4. Very flexible and elastic

41

Characteristics of Plasma

1. The liquid part of blood
2. It is a pale yellow fluid that consists of about 91% water and 9% other substances
3. Contains proteins, ions, nutrients, gases, waste products, and regulatory substances
4. It is a colloid ( a liquid containing suspended substances that do not settle out of solution

42

Makes up 58% of plasma proteins @ important in regulating the movement of water between the tissues @ blood

Albumin

43

The protein portion of hemoglobin

Globin

44

A plasma protein
Many substances in blood are transported by globulins
In electrically charged solutions -exhibits colloidal mobility between that of the alpha @ gamma globulins

Beta Globulins

45

A medical emergency where organs and tissues of body not receiving adequate flow of blood. Deprives organs and tissues of oxygen

Circulatory Shock

46

Most superficial layer of the pericardium in the heart.
Consisting of dense fibrous tissue

Fibrous Pericardium

47

3 Tunics of Arteries

1. Tunica Interna (inner layer) (simple squamous cells called endothelium)

2. Tunica Media (middle layer) (smooth muscle)

3. Tunica Externa (or Tunica Adventitia)
(outer most layer) (collagen and elastic fibers)

48

What type of solution is blood

Complex solution with vastly diverse elements. It is a buffer solution at about pH 7.6. To remain healthy blood must be isotonic.

49

Characteristics of Thrombocytes:

1. They are fragments of a large cell called a megakaryocyte.
2. A platelet crucial to normal blood clotting.
3. When bleeding occurs they swell, clump together and form a sticky plug that helps stop bleeding

50

Functions of Veins:

A vein is an elastic blood vessel that transports deoxygenated blood from various regions of body to the heart

51

Functions of Arteries:

Most arteries carry oxygenated blood away from heart to res of body

52

Functions of Arterioles:

1. They carry blood away from heart and out to tissues of body
2. Important to blood pressure regulation
3. Most highly regulated blood vessel in body
4. Constantly change size to speed up or slow down blood flow

53

Functions of Albumins

1. Distribute the water so the osmotic balance of blood is maintained
2. Transports proteins in blood
3. Main protection of human plasma

54

Functions of Capillaries

1. Tiny blood vessels that pass blood from arteries to veins.
2. Their walls are thin which allow materials to pass into them
3. Exchanges take place between blood and tissues of body
4. They are narrow which slows blood down allowing time for diffusion to take place
5. In capillaries blood cells mus flow single file

55

Functions of Prothrombin

1. A blood clotting protein
2. An injury to blood vessels produces a signal which triggers the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin
3. Formed by and stored in liver

56

Bleeding or escape of blood from blood vessels. Caused by trauma, or injury to a blood vessels

Hemorrhage
(usually refers to significant bleeding)

57

Peripheral Pulse Sites:

1. Carotid-Lateral to the trachea. Used for CPR.

2. Brachial-Inner aspect of elbow joint

3. Radial-Inner aspect of wrist, thumb side

4. Femoral-Located in groin midway

5. Popliteal-Behind knee. Best found by bending knee + pressing into popliteal fossa. Used to evaluate circulation to lower limbs.

6. Posterior Tibialis Anterior-Just below + behind ankle on inner aspect of leg. Used to evaluate lower limb circulation

58

Drains the lower part of the body

Inferior Vena Cava

59

What drains upper part of body

Subclavian Vein

60

Medium size muscular arteries. The smooth muscle cells allow them to partially regulate blood supply to different body regions by constricting or dilating

Distributing Arteries

61

The rhythmical throbbing of arteries as blood is propelled through them

Pulse

62

Layers of Pericardium

1. Fibrous pericardium (outer layer)
Connective, tough, fibrous tissue

2. Serous pericardium (inner layer)
Simple, squamous, epithelium

63

Location of brachiocephalic artery

A short artery that arises from the arch of the aorta + divides into the carotid + subclavian arteries of the right side.
Extends from aortic arch of the heart.
Supplies oxygenated blood to head, neck and arm regions.

64

Location of the Valves (There are 4)

1. Two located between the atria + ventricles of the heart (atrioventricular valves)

Two located in the major vessels leaving the valves (semilunar valves)

65

Valves of Heart

1. Left Atrioventricular Valve -
(Bicuspid Valve)
2. Right Atrioventricular Valve-
(Tricuspid Valve)
3. Left Semilunar (Aortic Valve)-Lies within
the Aorta
4. Right Semilunar (Pulmonic Valve)-Lies
within the Pulmonary Artery

66

Normal Heart Sounds

lub dub

lub (1st sound (S1) Start of Systole
dub(2nd sound (S2) End of Systole

67

Outer Layer of Heart

Epicardium

68

Characteristics of Heart:

1. Organ that supplies blood + oxygen to all parts of body
2. Size of clenched fist
3. Weighs about 10.5 oz. + shaped like cone
4. Blood pumped away from heart through arteries. Returns to heart through veins
5. Heart divided by septum into 2 halves
6. Halves divided into chambers. Upper 2 chambers-Atria.
Lower 2 chambers-Ventricles
7. Atria-receives blood returned to the heart
8. Ventricles-Pump blood from heart to body
9 Heart composted of cardiac muscle

69

Proteins found in blood plasma include:
Albumin (most common)
Fibrinogen
Globulin

They are called_______________

Plasma Proteins

70

Protection Functions of Blood

1. It clots blood (coagulates
2. Production of Antibodies
3. Phagocytosis

71

Rh incompatibility between an Rh negative mother and her Rh positive baby during pregnancy would cause this___________

Erythroblastosis Fetalis

72

Regulatory Functions of Blood:

1. Transport (gases, nutrients, waste products, hormones, heat)
2. Protection (Leukocytes, Antibodies, Platelet Factors)
3. Regulation (Regular pH, and water)

73

Functions of Blood

1. Transport oxygen
2. Transport nutrients
3. Take wastes away from muscles
4. Maintain body Temperature
5. WBCs help kill pathogens
6. Clot wounds

74

Facts about Myocardial Cells

1. Specialized smooth muscle cells with acquired features + properties similar to those of skeletal muscles
2. Found in myocardium + are striated
3. They are Branched (connect with other myocardial cells)
4. The site where myocardial cells join is called intercalated disc.
5. Intercalated discs contain 2 types of cell junctions- (Desmosomes + Gap Junctions)
6. Demosomes + Gap Junctions are electrically excitable cells capable of initiating and propagating action potentials

75

What determines Blood Typing

1. Determined by glycoproteins present on the surface of erythrocytes
2. Largely determined by genetics
3. Rhesus factor-positive or negative
4. Blood type of child determined by dominant type between 2 parents
5. A and B dominant over O

76

Facts about Heart Muscle

1. Responsible for pumping blood throughout body
2. Made of cardiac muscle
3. Most muscular part of heart is middle layer (myocardium)-responsible for contractions
4. Cardiac Muscle-Striated like skeletal muscle
5. Striated muscle is arranged in protein filaments known as Sacromeres-responsible for contractions
6. Reliant on oxygen to function

77

Why is the left ventricle the strongest chamber of the heart

Because it has to pump up against gravity + it has to pump blood to the entire body, so it has to be strong

78

Where does the Left Atrium receive blood from

Pulmonary Vein

79

Where are the parts of the conduction system found

1. Sinoatrial Node (SA Node)-located in posterior wall of Right Atrium
2. Atrioventricular Node (AV Node)-located in the floor of Right Atrium
3. Bundle of HIS-extends to right + left sides of the Interventricular Septum + Apex of the heart

80

Where do the ventricles pump blood to

From the heart to the entire body

81

Signs of CAD (Coronary Artery Disease)

(Coronary Arteries become narrowed. They can't supply enough oxygen rich blood to your heart)

1. Angina (chest pain) most common sign
2. Shortness of breath with exercising or during another vigorous activity
3. A fast heartbeat
4. Weakness, Dizziness, and felling sick to stomach (nasea)
5. Increased Sweating
6. Pain in abdomen, back, or Arm (pain-fleeting or sharp)

82

Signs of Hypovolemic Shock

(Is a medical emergancy. Loss of fluids and blood. The heart is unable to pump enough blood to bear with the loss. There is a decrease in the blood plasma volume. Loss can be from cuts, bleeding, injuries + internal injuries.)

Signs
1. Cold skin
2. Agitation + Anxiety
3. Decrease in output of urine
4. Confusion
5. Feeling of Weakness (in general)
6. Paleness of Skin
7. Rapidness in Breathing
8. Moist skin + Increased Sweating
9 Falling Unconscious

83

What does erythropoietin stimulate

Stimulates production of RBCs by bone marrow.
Erythropoietin is produced by kidneys

84

The portion separating the right + left Atria

Interatrial Septum

85

What is a Basophil

A type of WBC (leukocyte) with coarse bluish, black granules. Basophils are so named because their cytoplasmic granules stain with basic dyes. These cells help you fight infection by releasing histamine and other chemicals.

86

What are trigger factors for Erythropoiesis

1. Blood loss is a strong trigger or Hemorrhage
2. Various types of anemia
3. When you become short of oxygen
4. Traveling to high altitudes
5. When people take cobalt salts
6. Raised levels of the hormones that control sexual development

87

What is the vasoconstriction layer

The vessel layer that has a direct role in vasoconstriction is the TUNICA MEDIA

88

Signs of a Patient with CHF
(CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE)

A condition in which the heart's functions as a pump is inadequate to meet the body's needs

Signs
1. Fatigue
2. Persons ability to exercise may diminish
3. Swelling of ankles + legs or abdomen
4. Fluid may accumulate in lungs causing shortness of breath (during exercise or laying flat)
5. Unable to sleep unless setting up
6. Extra fluid may cause increased urination particularly at night
7. Accumulation of fluid in body may cause nasea, abdominal pain + decreased appetite

89

Care for a Patient with CHF
(CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE)

Care
1. Take prescription meds. as perscribed same time each day
2. Talk with doctor about keeping extra meds at home in case symptoms worsen
3. Keep a log of daily weight-use same scale, in same place, at same time daily
4. Note any swelling or problem with breathing or increased cough
5. Record Dietary Issues
6. Know when to call Doctor
7. Watch your seniors emotional health
8. Have help caring for your senior
9. Make sure room has plenty of places to sit and rest
10.Use mobility aids if needed
11.Raise head of bed at night if needed
12.Use suggestion from physical or occupational therapists