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Flashcards in final study guide 201-1 Deck (25):

The 1st part of the small intestine immediately beyond the stomach, leading to the jejunum



The outermost of the 3 primary germ layers of the embryo, from it are derived the epidermis and epidemic tissues such as nails, hair, and glands of the skin, the nervous system, external sense organs such as the eye and ear, and the mucous membranes of the mouth and anus



The innermost of the 3 germ layers of an embryo. From the endoderm arises the epithelium of the trachea, bronchi, lungs, GI tract, liver, pancreas, urinary bladder, anal canal, pharynx, thyroid, tympanic cavity, tonsils, and parathyroid glands.


(Comprises the lining of the cavities and passages of the body and the covering of most of the internal organs)


Function of Epiglottis

(Attached to larynx, located at the opening of the windpipe)

Prevents food and liquids from entering the windpipe. It closes when swallowing


Function of Male Urethra

1. Tube through which urine is excreted
2. The urethra also carries semen outwards through the penis


Function of Oxytocin

1. Main Role-Prepare a pregnant woman for childbirth
2. Once the baby is born, oxytocin helps to encourage the mother-child bonding
3. It also plays a role in milk expression, a process also known as milk let-down
4. Also causes the uterus to contract and shrink back to near normal size


Function of Gastrin

1. It helps in the digestion of food, especially proteins, by activating the secretion of gastric acid
2. Special cells in the stomach and pancreas create and reserve gastrin
3. Gastrin activates the release of pancreatic and stomach enzymes, increases the movement of stomach and intestinal contents and initiates the flow of bile from the liver
4. The secretion of gastric acid is higher during the night


Function of Thymus

1. Gland that forms part of the immune system
2, Its function is to transform lymphocytes (white blood cells) into T-cells (cells developed in the thymus). These cells are transported to various lymph glands, where they play an important part in fighting infections and disease


Cephalic Phase

When the brain prepares to absorb food, and the saliva production increases


Define Antibodies

1. Specialized cells of immune system which recognize organisms that invade the body (such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi).
2. The antibodies are then able to set off a complex chain of events designed to kill these foreign invaders


Define Myocardial Infarction

1. Destruction of heart tissue resulting resulting from obstruction of the blood supply to the heart muscle
2. Irreversible injury to the heart muscle (heart attack)


The mucous membrane lining the uterus, which thickens during the menstrual cycle in preparation for possible implantation of an embryo



Functions of Platelets

1. To help CLOT blood in the case of injury
2. They create a barrier to prevent too much blood from flowing from a wound


1. Thin muscle that covers the testis
2. Its function is to lower and raise the scrotum, which helps to control the temperature of the testis and avoids overheating
3. The muscle contracts when a man is sexually aroused in order to protect the testis during intercourse
4. Primary Function-Regulate temperature of testis

Cremaster Muscle


Function of Relaxin

1. During pregnancy the placenta produces a hormone called relaxin that help your whole body physically become a bit looser
2. Relaxin relaxes the intrauterine ligaments
3. It also relaxes other parts of your body, like your arteries, which have to accommodate a much higher blood volume without sending your blood pressure through the roof


Definition of Fertilization

1. Fertilization occurs when the sperm and egg combine to create an embryo
2. It typically occurs in the fallopian tube of a woman shortly after ovulation if sperm has been deposited into the reproductive tract.
3. The fertilized egg then moves down the tube and implants into the uterus, initiating a pregnancy


Embryonic Period

1. Weeks 3-8 of development
2. The 3 germ layers
(ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm) form the tissues and main organ systems and the body becomes recognizably human


Fertilization takes place where

Fertilization tends to occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBE and then the egg later implants in the uterine lining


Events of Normal Heart Sounds

Normal heart sounds are caused by the CLOSURE OF THE HEART VALVES


Function of Bulbourethral Gland (Cowper's Gland)

1. A gland in the male that discharges seminal fluid into the urethra
2. This clear secretion known as pre-ejaculate helps lubricate the urethra for spermatozoa to pass through and to help flush out any residual urine or foreign matter


Define Angina Pectoralis

1. Commonly known as Angina.
2. Is severe chest pain due to ischemia (a lack of blood, hence a lack of oxygen supply) of the heart muscle generally due to obstruction or spasm of the coronary arteries (the heart's blood vessels)


Function of Secretin

1. The small intestine is periodically assaulted by a flood of acid from the stomach, it is important to put out the fire to avoid acid burns
2. Secretin function as a type of fireman.
It is released in response to acid in the small intestine, and stimulates the pancreas and bile ducts to release a flood of biocarbonate base, which neutralizes the acid
3. Secretin was also the 1st hormone to be discovered


Functions of Surfactand

1. Surfactant DECREASES the surface tension in the alveoli,--preventing collapse
during the breathing cycle
2. It protects the lungs from injuries and infections caused by foreign bodies and pathogens


Function of Aldersterone

1. Helps maintain blood pressure (BP) and water and salt balance in the body by helping the kidneys retain sodium and excrete potassium
2. When aldosterone production falls too low, the kidneys are not able to regulate water and salt balance, causes a drop in both blood volume and blood pressure


Define Haptens

1. A substance that is capable of reacting WITH a specific antibody but CANNOT induce the formation of antibodies unless bound to a carrier protein or other molecule
2. Also called Incomplete Antigen