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Flashcards in bones and muscles 2 Deck (40):
1

The outer end of the scapula, extending over the shoulder joint @ forming the highest point of the shoulder, to which the collar bone is attached

Acromion Process

2

Deep furrow or slit (as in bone)

Fissure

3

Point at which a muscle attaches to a movable bone

Insertion

4

(Movement Forward) or in the anterior postition

Protraction

5

(Moving back) Movement in the posterior direction

Retraction

6

A muscle that brings a limb or other anatomical part back to its initial position of rest.
Responds by stretching.

Antagonist

7

Facts about Antagonist

The antagonist is important when a person extends or contracts a limb,
It holds objects against gravity, and tries to maintain balance while standing erect.
The antagonist helps the body maintain a state of relaxation.

8

Muscle that works in opposite direction of the antagonist.
It contracts
(ex:Biceps brachii @ triceps brachii)
CONTRACTS RELAXES

Agonist

9

Small fluid filled sac that reduces friction of joints

Bursae

10

Muscles on the front of the upper arm.
Necessary for rotating @ lifting the arm.
Most visible and impressive muscle

Biceps

11

Muscle responsible for 2 primary movements of arm
1. Carrying 2. Lifting the arm
Most commonly used muscle in body

Biceps

12

Arm muscle located just above the elbow @ beneath the bicep
Primary Purpose-flex elbow isometrically.

Brachialis

13

A kind of joint action which produces a circular or conical movement of the limb extending from that joint.
Circling the arm @ shoulder is and example.
(ex: wrist, base of fingers)
Arm moves in a cone shape when pitching baseball.
Ball-and -Socket joint-found at hip @ shoulder-truly capable of this - 360 degree movement

Circumduction

14

Fracture where bone is broken into several pieces.
This type can involve crushing or splintering of bone.
Common in elderly, people with weak bones, or cancer

Comminuted Fracture
At least 3 pieces of bone must be present for fracture to be comminuted

15

Fluid filled joint with a distictive oval shape.
It is a synovial joint.
Characterized by presence of a fluid-containing joint capsule, which lubricates the surface of adjacent bones in the joint.

Condyloid Joint

16

A joint that connects the 2 uppermost bones of the cranium.
The frontal @ parietal bones.
A fibrous joint held together by dense collagen tissue.
This type of joint allows little or no movement.

Coronal Suture

17

Facts about Coronal Suture

These sutures extend from temple to temple.
They do not form a straight line.
Bones fit tightly together like puzzle pieces.
Has no synovial fluid.

18

Thin, delicate layer of connective tissue that surrounds individual muscle fibers.
Contains reticular fibers(contain collagen), blood vessels, capillaries, arteries, veins,and nerves that create a mesh-like network of vessels.

Endomysium

19

Outermost layer of dense connective tissue surrounding muscles.
Primary Function-Combine with other muscular connective tissue to form a thick, collagenous cord of tissue known as-tendon

Epimysium

20

A membrane that protects and supports groups of fibers within the skeletal muscle.
Responsible For: shaping @ organizing the muscle fibers @transmitting forces within the muscle.
Made of collagen @ elastin fibers.
Collagen fibers give tissue strength.
The elastin promotes elasticity. This holds the structure together @ allows fibers to move easily against one another.

Perimusium

21

One of the bones that makes up the skull.
A spongy type of bone with light bony plates.
Situated between nasal cavity @ brain cavity, and makes up the nasal cavity roof, part of nasal cavity walls, part of bony orbits around the eyes, part of the floor of cranium.

Ethmoid Bone

22

Located in pairs at the rear of each vertebrae.
Helps link adjoining vertebrae.
Known as Z-joints
Allow free movement of the spine.
They limit range of motion to protect the discs.

Facet Joints

23

Longest, thickest @ strongest bone in body
Runs from pelvis to top of knee.
Gives support to entire body
Helps body contend with gravity.
Plays role in standing, walking, running @ jumping.

Femur

24

Calf Bone
Smallest of 2 bones that run between knee and ankle
Bone is slender and not weight bearing

Fibula

25

Shin Bone
Larger of 2 bones located between knee and ankle.
Considered to be strongest weight bearing bone in the body.
Triangular inner shape
Ridge running down front of leg-not covered by muscle

Tibia

26

This bone is slightly different in men and women.
Men-vertically straight
Women-Slants down and slightly outward because women have wider hips than men

Tibia

27

More likely to break than any other bone

Tibia

28

Condition associated with the Tibia

Shin Splints

29

Movement of joints, tendons and muscles beyond their normal limit.
May cause injury. Most commonly affected-knees and elbows.
Can cause joint pain, swelling, or immobility

Hyperextension

30

Muscle running between the cheek bone and the lower jawbone.
2 on each side of skull, very strong
The mandibular nerve supplies the muscle with nerve impulses which cause it to contract raising and lowering the jaw when chewing or speaking.

Masseter Muscle

31

Remaining in place. Not capable of movement or being moved.

Immobility

32

The rotation of the forearm so that the palm faces posteriorly in relation to the anatomical position.

Pronation
In pronation the radius and ulna cross

33

Rotation of the forearm so that the palm faces anteriorly in relation to the anatomical position.

Supination
In supination the radius and ulna are parallel

34

Short bones which make up the foot

Tarsels

35

The sac enclosing a joint. Made of outer fibrous articular capsule @ inner synovial membrane

Joint Cavity

36

A muscle located in the facial region.
Begins at bridge of nose @ inserts into the frontal bone, between eyebrows.
Helps pull down skin between eyebrows.
Also aids in movement that allows flaring of the nostrils @ facial expression-show anger
Has a bit of pyramid shape
Primary Function-Provides protection to eyes from glare of sun

Procerus

37

Strap-like muscle runs along lower half of body, from pubic bone to shaft of femur.
Linked to movement of thigh @ knee.
When referring to a pulled groin this muscle is involved

Gracilis Muscle

38

This muscle can be used in a wide range of reconstructive surgeries. (ex: to cover wounds)

Gracilis Muscle

39

Process by which new blood cells are formed.

Hematopoiesis

40

A joint that allows backward and forward motion. (ex: elbow, knee).
They cannot swivel or move in any other direction
A type of synovial joint

Hinge Joint
(Classification based on range of motion)