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Flashcards in final study guide 101-3 Deck (50):
1

Function of Ceruminous Gland

It produces cerumen (earwax) that protects the skin in the ear from dust, bacteria and very small insects

2

Function of a Dendrite

Main receptive of input regions

Provides an enormous surface area for receiving signals from other neurons, in the brain in collects information

3

Function of Limbic System

Central in the control of emotional responses

Storing memories

Regulating Hormones

The Limbic System is involved in many of our emotions and motivations, particularly those that are related to survival
Such emotions include: fear, anger, and emotions related to sexual behavior
Also involved in feelings of pleasure that are related to our survival, such as those exxperienced from eating and sex

4

Function of Osteocyte

Osteocytes are responsible for the maintenance and turnover of mineral content of surrounding bone

5

Function of Thalamus

(located above the brainstem)

1. Motor Control
2. Receives Auditory, Somatosensory and Visual Sensory Signals
3. Relays Sensory Signals to the Cerebral Cortex
4. Controls Sleep and Awake States

6

Functions of Vestibule

The vestibule contains sense organs responsible for balance
utricle and saccule

7

Function of Vestibulocochlear
(it is a sensory nerve)

A sensory nerve that conducts auditory (mange hearing) and vestibular (maintain balance) information from the inner ear to the brain

8

Function of Hypothalamus

Controls the Autonomic Nervous System
The thirst center, hunger center and the body's thermostat

Controls the:
(hypophysis)pituitary gland--the most important endocrine gland in body-often referred to as "master gland"

The hypothalamus is the site of emotions and the effect emotions can have on the body

9

Functions of Mammary Glands

Where milk production takes place

Also, to pass antibodies needed for baby's protection against infections (passive immunity)

10

Functions of Cerebellum

(located below cerebrum or just above brain stem)

1. Helps maintain body's sense of balance

2. Coordinates muscular movements with Sensory information

11

Functions of Medulla

(medulla oblongata-a structure comprising the lower section of the brain stem)

Certain stimuli cause the medulla to send signals through the cranial nerves to execute actions like sneezing, swallowing or coughing

The neurons that initiate vomiting are found here

There is no single function of the medulla, but most of the processes it controls are related to one another

These involuntary functions include:
Regulation of Heart Rate
Blood Pressure
Breathing
Digestion
Sleep and Arousal
Some Motor Control
Sensory relay to the cortex
Regulate reflex action involving the face + throat
Relay sensation of touch, pain, balance, and limb position to cortex

12

Function of a neurilemma

(the plasma membrane surrounding a Schwann cell of a myelinated nerve fiber

It separates layers of myelin

13

Functions of Rods

Are known as photoreceptors.
They are cells located on the retina, in the back of the eye

Function: To receive and process signals of light and color, which gives us our vision

14

Functions of Prefrontal Cortex

(the part of the frontal lobes lying just behind the forehead, is often referred to as the "CEO of the brain" )

This brain region is responsible for cognitive analysis and abstract throught and the moderation of "correct" behavior in social situations

The prefrontal cortex is one of the last regions of the brain to reach maturation

Functions Include:
1. Focusing Attention
2. Organizing thought and problem solving
3. Foreseeing and weighing possible consequences of behavior
4. Forming strategies and planning
5. Ability to balance short-term rewards with long term goals
6. Shifting/Adjusting behavior when situations change
7. Impulse control and delaying gratification
8. Modulation of intense emotions
9. Inhibiting inappropriate behavior and initiating appropriate behavior
10. Simultaneously considering multiple streams of information when faced with complex and challenging information

15

Functions of Chondrocytes

(cells found in healthy cartilage)

They produce and maintain the cartilaginous matrix, which occupies 90-99% of cartilage volume.

They produce both the collagen and elastic fibers of the matrix as well as the other large macromolecules, such as the vaarious photeoglycans

16

Functions of Ependymal Cells

Responsible for lining of ventricular cavities (of brain)
They also line the central canal of spinal cord
They are involved in the production of cerebrospinal Fluid

17

Function of photreceptors

Cells in the retina that respond to light

18

Function of proprioceptors

Help the body recognize, activate, and coordinate its various parts in relation to its other parts and the environment.

For example:

Being able to touch your nose with your finger while your eyes are closed

Walking without watching where each foot lands

Tying your shoes

Finding your house key, and unlocking the door without looking

Proprioceptors also governs the sense of owning your body, the sense that your limbs belong to you

19

Function of Reticular Formation

(the Reticular Formation is a comprehensive network of nerves that is found in the central area of the brainstem)

The functions of the formation involve many of the essential functions of the body, such as:
1. ability to obtain recuperative sleep, sexual arousal,

2. ability to focus of tasks without being easily distracted
3. Directly involved with unconscious functions
4. Help to regulate the beating of the heart
5. Breathing and Respiration functions
6. Other processes of digesting food
7. Helps to regulate the processes of urination and defecation

20

Function of Semicircular Canals

Your semicircular canals are 3 tiny fluid filled tube in you inner ear that help you keep your balance

When your head moves around and moves the tiny hairs that line each canal.
These hairs translate the movement of the liquid into nerve messages that are sent to you brain
Your brain then can tell your body how to stay balanced

21

Function of Trigeninal Nerves

1. Is the largest of all 12 cranial nerves
2. It is responsible for sensation in the face, teeth, tongue, sinus, palate and motor functions such as biting, chewing and swallowing
3. It is very closely associated to the TMJs, jaw function and with how the teeth fit together
4. The nerve most studied by Dentists during their education
5. Research has shown a direct correlation of migraines and the activation of the Trigemino-vascular System

22

Function of Tympanic Membrane

(Eardrum-A thin, cone-shaped membrane that separates the external ear from the middle ear

A thin membrane separating the middle ear from the inner part of the external auditory canal that VIBRATES in response to sound energy and transmits resulting mechanical vibrations to the structures of the middle ear

23

Function of Schwann Cells

The Schwann Cell produces the myelin sheath
Function: To repair and regenerate damaged nerves

24

CHO stored in liver in which form?

(CARBOHYDRATES (CHO) are the main fuel source. Carbohydrates are simply sugars, made up of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O) molecules

CHO gets stored in the liver in a special form called GLYCOGEN

25

Conscious perception of vision

probably reflects activity in the OCCIPITAL LOBE OF THE CORTEX

26

Contractile units of skeletal muscles

Sacromere

27

Difference in Thoracic Vertebrae

(refers to upper and middle back)

The thoracic region consists of 12 vertebrae, and is the largest segment of the spine

Due to its articulation with rib cage, the thoracic spine is more rigid than the cervical and lumbar regions

It protects vital organs

The thoracic vertebrae are intermediate in size

The thoracic vertebral bodies are heart-shaped

Thoracic Vertebra articulate with the ribs, therefore they are much less mobile

28

Examples of a Colloid

A type of homogeneous mixture in which the dispersed particles do not settle out

A mixture in which very small particles of one substance are distributed evenly throughout another substance

Every colloid consists of 2 parts; colloidal particles and the dispersing medium

Colloids are common in everyday life
Some examples:
whipped cream
mayonaise
milk
butter
gelatin
jelly
muddy water
plaster
colored glass
paper
fog

29

Examples of a Suspension

A mixture in which small particles of a substance are dispersed throughout a gas or liquid.
If a suspension is left undisturbed, the particle are likely to settle to the bottom.

The particles in a suspension are larger than those in either a colloid, or a solution

Fine sand in water
Paint
Dust in Air
Droplets of oil in Air
Oil and Water
Muddy Water
Some medicines like Pepto Bismol

30

Excitatory Potential

The change in potential that is produced in the membrane of the next neuron when an impulse that has an excitatory influence arrives at the synapse, it is a local change in the direction of depolarization;

Summation of these potentials can lead to discharge of an impulse by the neuron

31

Light and Vision

Objects are visible because they give off light

Objects that give off light-Luminescent

Those that receive light-Illuminated

Transparent objects transmit most of light that reaches them, making it pass through them--(ex: clear glass)

Transluscent objects--(ex: frosted glass + waxed paper) are partially transparent. They diffuse light and can NOT be seen through

Opaque substances transmit NO LIGHT

32

Light and Vision (CONT.)

White light made up of violet, blue, green, yellow, orange, + red light

The colors of objects depend on how they reflect + absorb light

Substances that reflect all colors of white light is WHITE

A color that absorbs all these colors is BLACK

Most object absorb some colors + reflect others. They are called by the colors they REFLECT. Thus an object that absorbs all colors except blue is called BLUE

Vision depends on how light affects the eye + the condition of the eye

33

Fluid-filled sac
Especially one countering friction at a joint

Bursae

34

Cells that line the center canal of spinal cord or brain

Ependymal Cells

35

Space between bones of skull in an infant or fetus
Where ossification not complete, sutures not full formed

Fontanelles

36

An opening, hole, or passageway (especially in bone)

Foramina

37

Structure containing a number of nerve cells bodies + often form a swellin on anerve fiber

Ganglia

38

Band of tough, flexible fibrous connective tissue that connects 2 bones or cartilage to a joint

Ligaments

39

Mucous membrane that covers front of eye + lines the inside of eyelids

Conjunctiva

40

A crescent shaped body
(ex: in knee joint)

Menisci

41

Process where a single cell divides resulting in 2 identical cell
Each containing the same number of chromosomes + genetic content as the original cell

Mitosis

42

Any of the class of sugars that cannot be hydrolized to give a simpler sugar

Monosaccharide

43

A whitish fiber or bundle that transmits impulses or sensations to the brain or spinal cord + impulses from these to muscles + organs

Nerves

44

Cells in Central Nervous System (CNS)
Surround and insulate the long fibers-(axons) through which the nerves send electrical messages

Oligodendrocytes

45

A carbohydrate whose molecules consist of a number of sugar molecules bonded together

Polysaccharide

46

Any cells that cover the nerve fibers in the Peripheral Nervous System + form Myelin Sheath

Schwann Cells

47

A line of union between bones of skull

Sutures

48

A flexible strong fibrous cord attaches muscle to bone

Tendons

49

A contracting muscle that is resisted or counteracted by another muscle

Agonist

50

A muscle that acts in opposition to another

Antagonist