Cartilage Flashcards Preview

Body Logistics > Cartilage > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cartilage Deck (32):
1

Is cartilage a vascular or avascular tissue?

Avascular

2

Cartilage has an extensive EM, which cells produce and maintain the EM?

Chondrocytes in the EM

3

Which feature of the EM of cartilage allows diffusion of substances between chondrocytes and surrounding blood vessels?

The large ratio of GAGs ---> hydrated gel ---> fast diffusion

4

What does the ground substance of cartilage consist of? (3)

Proteoglycan monomers
Hyaluronic acid
Collagen fibrils

5

What sort of molecule is hyaluronic acid?

A GAG

6

How do the proteoglycan monomers, hyaluronic acid molecules and collagen fibrils in the ground substance of cartilage interact with each other?

Hyaluronic acid attaches to proteoglycan monomers to form a hyaluronate proteoglycan aggregate

These become interwoven with the collagen fibrils

7

What are some features of the EM in cartilage?

Solid, firm, pliable and resilient to pressure

8

What characteristic of GAGs allows it to attract water molecules to form a hydrated gel?

High density of -ve charges on the GAG

9

What is the difference in structure between hyaline and elastic cartilage? What molecules do both contain?

Both contain proteoglycan monomers, GAGs and type 2 collagen

In elastic cartilage there is the addition of many elastic fibres/elastic lamellae

10

What are the three types of cartilage? Which is the most common?

Hyaline cartilage (most common)
Elastic cartilage
Fibrocartilage

11

What is the structure of fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage?

Same structure as hyaline cartilage with the addition of abundant type 1 collagen fibres

12

What are the only cells found in hyaline cartilage?

Chondrocytes

13

How do chondrocytes present in hyaline cartilage?

Singly or as small clusters called isogenous groups

14

Chondrocytes in isogenous groups separate as they...

Lay down the EM

15

What is the relevance of hyaline cartilage in fetal development?

Hyaline cartilage is the precursor for bones which later develop

16

Hyaline cartilage is found at the articulating surfaces of which type of bone?

Long bone

17

Where is hyaline cartilage found in the body?

At articulating surfaces in;

Trachea, bronchi, nose, larynx, parts of the rib cage

18

What is the perichondrium? Where is it found?

A layer of dense irregular connective tissue

Covers the margin of hyaline cartilage

19

What cells does the perichondrium contain that are relevant in cartilage?

Elongated fibroblasts

20

How do the elongated fibroblasts found in the perichondrium develop?

Elongated fibroblasts ----> chondroblasts ---> chondrocytes

21

In what two ways can cartilage grow?

Appositional growth (growth from the sides)

Interstitial growth (deeper chondrocytes divide forming isogenous groups which lay down the EM)

22

Each chondrocyte lies in a ...

Lacuna (space where the cell lies)

23

What affects how much EM is laid down by chondrocytes?

The response of the chondrocytes to different pressure loads

24

In what two places is there no perichondrium around the hyaline cartilage?

At articulating surfaces
At epiphyseal growth plates

25

Does either hyaline cartilage or elastic cartilage calcify with ageing?

Hyaline cartilage does

Elastic cartilage doesn't

26

What appearance do elastic fibres take in micrographs?

Dark staining

27

Name two places in the body where there is elastic cartilage?

External ear (pinna of the ear)
Epiglottis
Eustachian tube

28

What cells are found in fibrocartilage?

Fibroblasts
Chondrocytes

29

What does fibrocartilage consist of? What are its properties?

Combination of dense regular CT and hyaline cartilage

Shock-absorbent, resists shearing forces

30

What appearance do cells in fibrocartilage take?

Cells often seen in rows

31

Does fibrocartilage have a surrounding perichondrium?

No

32

Give two examples of where you would find fibrocartilage in the body?

Intervertebral discs
Menisci of the knee joint
Pubic symphysis