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Flashcards in The Lymphatic System Deck (39):
1

How many litres of interstitial fluid are collected by the lymphatic system each day? Where is this fluid returned?

3 litres (out of 20)

Returned to the venous system

2

Name 3 phagocytes

Macrophages, dendritic cells and neutrophils

3

What cells are present in the lymphatic system?

Lymphocytes (e.g. B, T and NK cells)

Supporting Cells - macrophages, follicular dendritic cells

4

In what part of the body are there no lymphatics?

CNS

5

How does lymph continue flowing in lymphatics? (2)

1) Passes through skeletal muscle, skeletal muscle contraction helps lymph to continue flowing
2) Larger lymphatics (e.g. Abdomen/thorax) contain smooth muscle, which contracts to move lymph

6

What can lymphoedema result in?

The presence of a static fluid can result in infections e.g. Cellulitis

7

How does cellulitis often present?

As redness of the skin

8

What are two examples of tissues in the lymphatic system?

Diffuse, MALT (mucosal associated lymphatic tissue)

Lymphatic nodules

9

What are two types of MALT?

GALT AND BALT
(Gut and bronchus respectively)

10

What are some examples of lymphatic nodules?

Tonsils, Peyer's Patches, the vermiform appendix

11

What are the 3 organs of the lymphatic system?

Spleen, thymus and lymph nodes

12

What prevents the movement of essential bacteria out of the colon?

Valves

13

What is the function of lymph nodes?

To act as filters for the lymph

14

Where do afferent lymphatics enter the lymph node?

Via the convex surface

15

Where do efferent lymphatics leave the lymph nodes?

Via the hilum

16

Where are follicular dendritic cells found?

In the germinal centres of lymph follicles

17

What do follicular dendritic cells result in? How?

The proliferation of B cells, particularly memory B cells.

Through the adhering of antigen-antibody complexes to their processes, the cell retains the specific antigen for months.

18

Lymph nodes contain professional APCs. What are two examples of these? Which cells in particular do they prime?

B cells and macrophages.

Activation of T cells

19

What is the first reaction of the body to an antigen?

An inflammatory response

20

What two cells largely mediate inflammation?

Neutrophils
Macrophages

21

What is the humoral response mediated by? What is produced as a result of the humoral response?

B cells.

Antibodies (b cells ----> plasma cells (produce antibodies)

22

What is the cell mediated response mediated by?

T cells

23

What do T cells require to recognise an antigen?

An APC

24

Cell mediated immunity is important in defence against... (3)

Tumour cells
Transplant rejection
Viral/fungal infections

25

Where do many of the macrophages, neutrophils, B and T cells exist in the lymphatic system?

Lymph nodes

26

Where do the feeding artery and draining vein enter and leave the lymph node?

Via the hilum

27

Where do the majority of lymphocytes enter and leave the lymph nodes?

Enter in the feeding artery

Leave in the efferent lymphatics

28

What is the main cause of enlarged lymph nodes?

Germinal centres of lymph follicles fill with lymphocytes to fight infection, resulting in swelling and pain

29

How do cancers metastasise to lymph nodes?

Via the afferent lymphatics

30

What is the main function of the spleen?

Filters the blood in the same way that lymph nodes filter lymph

Has immune and haemapoietic functions

31

Give 3 haemopoietic functions of the spleen

Removes damaged/old RBCs
Removes platelets
Retrieves iron from RBC haemoglobin

32

Why can rupturing of the spleen result in death?

Has a rich blood supply, relatively fragile ---> can result in death through extreme blood loss (exsanguination)

33

What is the process of removing the spleen called?

Splenectomy

34

What can take over the removal of ageing RBCs from the blood in the case of an absent spleen?

The liver
Bone marrow

35

The risk of what increases after a splenectomy?

Infection
DVT
Pulmonary Embolism

36

What can result in an enlarged spleen?

Systemic infection (e.g. Glandular fever)

37

Where is the thymus located?

In the superior mediastinum

38

The thymus turns into mostly fat by which age?

The late teens

39

What is the main function of the thymus

Thymic cell education