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Flashcards in The Endocrine System Deck (32):
1

What two systems do body systems use to communicate with each other?

Endocrine system
Nervous system

2

What are the two branches of the ANS? What sort of activities does each branch control?

Sympathetic (fight or flight)

Parasympathetic (rest and digest)

3

What is the term for a slow heartbeat? What is the term to describe a fast heartbeat?

Bradycardia

Tachycardia

4

How do sympathetic nerve fibres affect blood vessels?

Cause constriction of of all blood vessels ---> except capillaries and precapillary sphincters

5

What organs are prioritised with blood supply in a flight or fight situation?

Brain
Heart
Skeletal muscle

6

What is a benefit of venoconstriction in a fight or flight situation?

It will increase blood return to the heart

7

Where are 3 places in the body neurocrine communication is used?

Hypothalamus
Posterior pituitary
Adrenal medulla

8

What is neurocrine communication?

Secretion of substances into the blood by a neurone to other target cells

9

The thymus is a example of which sort of gland?

Endocrine gland

10

How does the thymus develop?

Full formed and functional at birth
Mostly fat by late teens

11

What is the main function of the thymus? What hormone does the thymus produce? What does this do?

Thymic cell education

Thymosin - promotes t cell maturation

12

What 3 different type of hormones exist? Where is the target of each at the cell?

Steroid hormones - cytosolic/nuclear
Peptide hormones - cell membrane
Catecholamines - cell membrane

13

What is the relevance of the hypothalamus with relation to the nervous system and endocrine system?

Its the point where the CNS and endocrine system communicate

14

What hormones are produced at the hypothalamus that travel to the posterior pituitary?

ADH and oxytocin

15

How do hormones travel from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary?

Via the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system

16

What is another name for the pituitary gland? Where is it located in reference to the hypothalamus? What is its structure?

The hypophysis

On a stalk below the hypothalamus

Two lobes - anterior and posterior

17

What hormones are released by the thyroid gland? What does it do?

Thyroxin - controls metabolic rate

18

Where are the adrenal glands located in the body? What sort of structure do they have?

Above each kidney
Cortex and medulla structure

19

What two categories can adrenal cortical hormones be separated into?

Glucocorticoids

Mineralocorticoids

20

What is an example of a glucocorticoid?

Cortisol

21

What is an example of a mineralocorticoid?

Aldosterone

22

Where is the pineal gland located in the body?

It is a midline structure in the brain

23

What hormone does the pineal gland produce? What does it do?

Melatonin involved in the control of Circadian rhythm - inhibits the release of gonadotropins

24

Why is the pineal gland not visible on skull X-rays?

Calcifies in early adulthood

25

What is the difference between the ANS and somatic nervous system with regards to nerves that go from the CNS to effectors?

The ANS has two neurones
The somatic nervous system has one neurone from CNS to effector

26

Where are the cell bodies of presynaptic neurones in the ANS?

In the CNS

27

Where are the cell bodies of the post synaptic neurones in the ANS?

Peripheral ganglion

28

What are chromaffin cells? Where are they found?

Adrenal medulla

Effectively, modified postsynaptic neurones

29

What cause chromaffin cells to release their secretory products? What are the secretory products of chromaffin cells?

A nerve impulse from a myelinated presynaptic neurone

Adrenaline/Noradrenaline

30

What types of neurotransmitter/hormone are adrenaline/noradrenaline?

Catecholamines

31

The release of adrenaline and noradrenaline from chromaffin cells is an example of which type of secretion?

Neurocrine secretion

32

What are some examples of the effects of adrenaline/noradrenaline?

Increased blood pressure
Increased blood glucose (glycogen --> glucose)
Increased breathing rate
Increased metabolic rate